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[statistics first governed by the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba with limited jurisdiction. In the Territories there are no county and a separate council for the North-West, then by an court judges; police magistrates and appointed justices taking places. The provinces create their own courts, but the appointed governor and council (1875), until by successive their Federal Government appoints and pays the judges. The comdevelopments in the direction of self-government they missioner and the assistant commissioner of the North-West obtained an almost full measure of responsible govern- Mounted Police exercise the power of a stipendiary magistrate, the that of a justice of the peace. In the unorganized ment in 1897. The power of local taxation has, however, inspectors the law of England so far as applicable is in force. not yet been granted. The Yukon district of the North- Territories There are five penitentiaries in Canada, containing, on 30th June West Territories was, in 1898, politically separated from 1898, 1414 male prisoners and 32 females. All convictions for the rest of the territories and given a government of its two years or over go to the penitentiaries. Insane.—The census of 1891 showed 13,355 insane in the own, consisting of a commissioner and appointed advisory of which 7162 were males and 6193 females, the greatest council. The unorganized Territories are under the govern- Dominion, number, 5369, being between the ages of 40 and 69 years. The ance of the Dominion Government. The franchise for percentage showed that in every 10,000 males there were 29'1 the Dominion electors is at present the same as that for insane, and 26'1 in every 10,000 females. Of the whole number the provinces, and is so wide as almost to amount to 3044 were foreign-born and 2793 were bom in Canada, both parents foreigners. There are 18 asylums for the insane, most of residential manhood suffrage. The limits of the federal being which are supported by the Government, aided in some cases by the and provincial powers are defined by the British North municipalities. Education.—The British North America Act imposes the duty America Act (1867) with the residue of power vested in the Federal parliament, the opposite principle to that of of legislating on educational matters on the provincial legislatures, privileges of the minority in Ontario and Quebec—that is, the the United States and the commonwealth of Australia. the separate schools—being specially safeguarded. In other provinces In some points the two jurisdictions overlap, but decisions this limitation does not exist. In 1880 the New Brunswick legisof the Supreme Court of Canada and the judicial com- lature abolished the separate school system, and a contest arose mittee of the British Privy Council are gradually settling which was finally settled by the authority of the legislature being but certain concessions were made to the Roman Catholic disputable points. In the working of the several Govern- sustained, dissentients which practically met their objections. Subsequently ments the customs and practices of the imperial Parliament a similar difficulty occurred in Manitoba, when the legislature in are followed. The following is a list of the Governor-Generals 1890 abolished the system of separate schools which had been since confederation: YiscountMonk, 1st Junel867; Sir John established in 1871. Owing to ambiguity in the Acts the power of legislature was disputed, and after going through the courts Young (afterwards Baron Lisgar), 29th December 1868; the the with opposing decisions the case went to the Privy Council in earl of Dufferin, 2 2nd May 1872; the marquis of Lome (after- England. Their decision was ambiguous, but practically relegated wards duke of Argyll), 5th October 1878; the marquis of the matter to the Dominion Government. An attempt was made Lansdowne, 18th August 1883; Lord Stanley of Preston by it to restore the separate schools, but was successfully resisted the Manitoba Government, and at the general election for the (afterwards earl of Derby), 1st May 1888; the earl of Aber- by House of Commons in 1896 the Manitoba school question became deen, 22nd May 1893; the earl of Minto, 20th July 1898. a principal issue, with the result of overturning the Government. Justice.—The Supreme Court is the highest in the Dominion. Though the dissentient Roman Catholics did not acquiesce in this It has appellate, criminal, and civil jurisdiction as well as appellate verdict, the question is practically settled against the restoration of jurisdiction in cases between the Dominion and any of the pro- the separate school system. In Canada there are public schools or vinces, and between one province and another on condition that common schools, high schools, model and normal schools, denominalegislatures pass Acts agreeing to such jurisdiction. By Act of Par- tional schools, colleges, and degree-granting universities, private liament the Governor-General in Council may refer to the Supreme schools, agricultural and art colleges. The public schools are under Court for an opinion upon any matter which he deems advisable the control of local boards of trustees, elected by the ratepayers, in the public interest. There is a chief justice and five puisne and at these only certificated teachers are employed. The higli judges, and except in criminal cases an appeal lies from the schools, grammar schools, and colleges have a higher curriculum Supreme Court to the Privy Council in England. The Exchequer than the public schools, and are not free. The model schools are Court, presided over by a single judge, has exclusive jurisdiction in for the training of teachers desiring a 2nd or 3rd class certificate; cases in which a claim for money is made against the Crown or any the normal schools for those requiring a 1st class certificate. In of its officers, and also in cases where it is desired to enforce any addition to these there are night schools and kindergartens, and a law relating to the revenue, and it is a colonial court of Admiralty. few schools for the deaf and dumb. The general outline of educaIn the provinces the superior courts have various distinctive names tion in the Dominion may be seen from the following tabular and varying numbers of judges, in addition to the county courts statement:— Attendance in Pupils in. Scliools. Public Schools. Provinces. Year. Average. Percentage Other. Other. Public. Public. 56273,544 27,079 6,009 203 482,777 31st Dec. 1897 Ontario 70-33 143,665 101,260 204,259 690 30th June 1898 5,167 Quebec 57101,203 2,046 57,771 20 2,385 31st July 1898 Nova Scotia 6138,874 63,333 1,143 15 1,778 30th June 1898 New Brunswick 53-96 21,500 1,044 4 39,841 1,068 Manitoba 31st Dec. 1897 10,779 62459 17,189 4 30th June 1898 257 British Columbia . 61-22 13,377 included Do. 468 included 21,285 Prince Edward Island 52-69 8,827 16,754 31st Dec. 1898 The Territories 426 17,558

The Dominion Provinces. Ontario Quebec Nova Scotia . New Brunswick Manitoba British Columbia . Prince Edward Island The Territories The Dominion

Teachers. Other Public Schools. Schools.





Revenue. Government. Other Sources.


9,128 5,909 2,510 1,864 1,197 410 579 483

626 3643 60 39 13 12 included

,626,593 304,410 245,837 188,104 156,747 290,255 129,818 133,643

13,361,562 1,425,986 592,973 320,807 525,482 33,215 not given

$4,215,670 1,730,396 838,810 483,829 805,417 290,255 163,033 not given