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leave the country at the mercy of the United States. On the other, it was claimed that protection would weaken the connexion with the mother country. In 1878 a protective policy was adopted by a popular vote. It had the effect of checking the exodus aud restoring the national credit. With the return of prosperity, and the establishment of the finances on a sound basis, there arose a strong feeling that some discrimination should be made in favour of Great Britain as against foreign countries with their high tariffs. This feeling took definite shape in 1897, in the adoption of a preferential tariff in favour of British goods to the extent of 25 per cent, less than that levied on goods from foreign countries. This preference has now been increased to 33|- per cent. Science.—In scientific research and achievement Canada has made much progress. This is particularly true of medical science, owing to the establishment of important medical schools in the principal university centres. The munificence of the wealthy citizens of Montreal has given to that city a school of practical science, with an equipment unrivalled perhaps in the world. Schools of the same character have been founded in Toronto and Kingston, and the Royal Military College also provides a course in civil and military engineering. The skill and energy of the Canadian engineer find ample room for exercise in the development of the country’s mining resources, and in the construction of canals and railroads. The wide application of electrical energy has been especially marked. Every town of any importance has its electric street railway, its system of electric lighting, its supply of electric power for manufacturing purposes • its telephone connexion not only throughout its own area, but with places hundreds of miles away. Even the rural districts are becoming accustomed to look upon the telephone wire as a necessity. Every new labour-saving invention is quickly adopted, for skilled labour in Canada is still scarce and dear. Improved agricultural machinery has greatly lightened the burdens of the farmer, and Canadian implements of this class have secured a special reputation and market for themselves in other countries, owing to their lightness and durability. Twice since confederation has the British Association for the Advancement of Science selected Canadian cities for its annual meetings, thus furnishing a striking illustration of the contraction of the empire under the influence of steam and electricity. Literature.—hx the domain of letters, though no great names have appeared, Gilbert Parker, Charles Roberts, Bliss Carman, W. W. Campbell, Archibald Lampman, and a few other Canadians have in prose and verse interpreted their native land and its conditions with marked distinction. In 1880 the verse of Louise Frechette, the French Canadian poet, was crowned by the French Academy. Dr Drummond’s dialect verse, embodying the speech and thought of the French habitant, has gained a wide popularity. Dr Goldwin Smith, who made his home in Toronto in 1871, and has issued thence several volumes of history and criticism, speaks of himself as a Canadian, and has devoted no small share of his time and his consummate mastery of English prose to Canadian journalism. Sir John Bourinot, Sir James Lemoine, Dr Kingsford, and the Rev. Abbe Casgrain have been chief among many laborious workers in the field of Canadian history. The Royal Society, founded in 1882, draws together at its annual meetings men of literature and science, and publishes each year a volume of transactions. Education.—On confederation the control of education was entrusted to the provinces, with a stipulation that all rights then enjoyed by denominational schools should be respected. This has given rise to considerable diversity of management, though in all the provinces education


is free, and the necessary funds are obtained from local taxation and Government grants. Ontario has a highlyorganized school system, directed by a minister of education, who is a member of the provincial cabinet. The other provinces have superintendents and boards of education, who report to the provincial legislatures. In Quebec, where religious instruction is still considered the basis of education, most of the schools are controlled by the local Roman Catholic clergy. In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and British Columbia the public schools are strictly undenominational; in Ontario and Quebec separate schools are allowed to Roman Catholics and Protestants. Education of children between the age of seven and thirteen is compulsory except in Quebec. Secondary education is provided for by high schools and collegiate institutes in all towns and cities. Each province has a number of normal and model schools for the training of teachers. For higher education there are also abundant facilities. While the older universities have increased greatly in influence and efficiency, the following new foundations have been made since confederation :—University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1877; Presbyterian College, Winnipeg, 1870; Methodist College, Winnipeg, 1888; Wesleyan College, Montreal, 1873; Presbyterian College, Montreal, 1868; School of Practical Science, Toronto, 1877 ; Royal Military College, Kingston, 1875; M£Master University, Toronto, 1888. All the larger universities have schools of medicine in affiliation, and have the power of conferring medical degrees. Since 1877 Canadian degrees have been recognized by the Medical Council of Great Britain. In her treatment of the Indians Canada has met with a success which is in marked contrast to the experience of the United States. Since indiscriminate slaughter deprived them of the bison, their natural means of subsistence, the north-west tribes have been maintained chiefly at the expense of the country. As a result of the great care used in watching over them, the last few years have shown a small but steady increase in their numbers. A most encouraging sign of the elevation of the Indian is the increasing interest taken by them in education. A system of industrial and boarding schools has been established in several of the provinces, and these, by separating the children from the degrading influences of their home life, have proved much more effectual than day schools in training them in the habits and ideas of a higher civilization. A tendency towards consolidation has been evident among the various religious bodies. In 1873 the different branches of the Presbyterians united under the name of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, and a similar step was taken by the Methodists in 1883. The first general congress of the Church of England in Canada was held at Hamilton, Ontario, in the same year, and since that time this church has completed a Dominion organization. A recognition of the increasing importance of the Roman Catholic Church in Canada was given in the appointment, in 1888, of Archbishop Taschereau as the first Canadian cardinal. Though naturally a temperate people, Canadians seem bent on controlling the traffic in intoxicants by coercive measures. The Canada Temperance Act, a local option law passed in 1878, proved abortive through the failure to provide suitable machinery for its enforcement. In 1900, however, it was still in force in twenty-eight electoral districts. Between the years 1892 and 1894 four of the provinces declared for prohibition by majorities aggregating 130,000; but a general plebiscite, held in 1898, resulted in a majority for legislative prohibition of only 13,000. This verdict was looked upon by the Government as inconclusive, and no further action was taken. Political. — The Governor - Generalship of Canada