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CANANDAIG UA — CANCER 555 a similar manner on hollow cast-iron rams 7^ feet in Gomera, and Hierro. The other district includes Gran diameter, working in hydraulic cylinders built up of rings Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and has at its head a of steel castings 3^ inches thick, bolted together by external sub-governor, residing in Las Palmas, on Gran Canaria, flanges. Pumps driven by turbines, operated by water who is independent of the governor except in regard to taken from the upper reaches of the canal, wTork an accumu- elections and municipal administration. The province is lator which supplies the hydraulic plant used to move the divided into 7 administrative districts and 90 parishes. gates closing the tanks and branches of the canal leading The chief Finance Office is at Santa Cruz de Tenerife. to them, and also capstans for handling the barges in or The Court of Appeal, created in 1526, is in Las Palmas, out of the tanks. which is also the residence of the Bishop of Canarias. The Canal inclines were early adopted on canals where loss captain-general and second commandant of the archipelago of water in lockage was of importance. The Monkland reside in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and there is a brigadierCanal incline near Glasgow has a rise of 96 feet on a governor of Gran Canaria residing in Las Palmas, with 8 gradient of 1 in 10, and takes the place of eight locks inferior military commandants in other isles and forts. which were insufficiently supplied with water in dry The province furnishes no men for the Spanish peninsular seasons. A carriage with twenty wheels runs on each army, but its annual conscription provides men for the line of a double way of 7 feet gauge, carrying a water-tight local territorial militia of Canarias, composed of regiments wrought-iron caisson 70 feet long, 13 feet wide, and 2f feet of infantry, cazadores or rifles, squadrons of mounted rifles, deep in a horizontal position on the incline by elevating and companies of garrison artillery—about 5000 men all the lower end of the carriage. The caissons are filled told. The archipelago is divided into 2 naval districts, with water and balance each other; they act like movable commanded by royal navy captains. The principal means locks with gates, one ascending as the other descends, of communication is by sea. Some shipbuilding is carried moved by engine-power working two vertical drums, round on, mostly in Las Palmas. The sugar manufactures are which is coiled the wire rope that hauls the ascending load, yearly increasing, above all in Gran Canaria. Fishing is which is nearly counterbalanced by the descending boat. the principal industry, employing nearly 10,000 hands, on In order to prevent the boat from moving in the caisson, it 2200 boats averaging below 100 tons. This fishing fleet ■does not float freely when on the incline, but rests on the operates over 600 miles near the north-western African bottom of the caisson, partially supported by water. The coast. In 1898 wheat was grown on 138,295 acres, oats, time taken for the whole operation is ten minutes, the barley, maize, rye on 130,277 acres, pod fruit on 3435 saving in time being about half an hour for each barge. acres, and vines on 7837 acres. Though the soil is fertile, The Grand Junction Canal Company have constructed agriculture is not on the whole in a prosperous condition. an incline at Foxton on the Union Canal to take barges The islands are not very rich in live stock, as the official of 70 tons, or two canal boats of 33 tons, in place of ten statistics for 1898 only showed 2492 horses, 2380 mules, locks, which were necessary to overcome a rise of 75 feet. 4111 asses, 10,900 cattle, 1455 pigs, and 29,467 sheep. It is in some respects like the Monkland Canal incline, There were also 44,895 goats, most of which live in an but the movable caissons work on four pairs of rails on an almost wild state in the hilly parts of the islands. Game incline of 1 in 14 broadside on, in consequence of the is abundant in some districts, especially rabbits, hares, steeper grade, the boats being water-borne during the some wild duck, and small deer. Reptiles are quite whole time. Steam-power is employed with an accumu- unknown, though lizards are very numerous. England is lator, which enables hydraulic power to be used in keeping at the head of the import trade in coal, cotton textiles, the caisson in position at the top of the incline while and woollen goods, blankets, hardware, iron, timber, soaps, boats are being moved in or out, a water-tight joint being candles, and colonial products. France introduces sulphur, kept against the fixed portion of the canal during the shoe leather, and articles de Paris; Germany, earthenware, operation. The gates in the caissons and canal are also hardware, spirits, paper, and cotton goods; Belgium, worked by hydraulic power. The incline is capable of cement, starch, and glass. The principal exports are passing 200 canal boats in twelve hours, and the whole tomatoes, of which £67,350 were shipped in 1898; and plant is worked by three men. bananas, £10,500. In all, imports were valued at References.—Vernon Harcotjrt. Rivers and Canals. 2nd £280,942 in 1897, and £46,551 in 1898; exports at ed., 1896.—Priestley. Navigable Rivers and Canals. 1881.— £150,577 in 1897, and £204,796 in 1898. Engineering. Vols. Iv.-lxviii.—Telford. Memoirs. 1838.— Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers.—Reports of the Cancer.—Cancer has been the subject of much Navigation International Congresses, 1885 to 1898. (e. l. w.) exact investigation, and of a still larger amount of theory Canandaig-ua, a village of New York, U.S.A., and assumption. It is important to distinguish between and capital of Ontario county, situated in the western them. The following points deserve notice : (1) prevapart of the state, at an altitude of 735 feet. It has two lence, (2) causation, (3) distribution, (4) treatment. railways, the New York Central and Hudson River and The question of most general interest is the alleged the Northern Central, and owing to its situation at the increase of the disease. The belief that cancer has outlet of the beautiful Canandaigua lake, has become a increased, and is increasing rapidly, rests upon /o^f" summer resort. Population (1880), 5726 ; (1890) 5868; two pieces of evidence—the impression formed (1900), 6151 (834 foreign-born, and 110 negroes). by surgeons from their own experience, and the Registrar-General’s mortality returns. The first is obviCanary Islands or Canarias, a Spanish ously mere opinion, the value of which depends on the archipelago in the Atlantic, about 60 miles W. of the number of individuals holding it and the extent of their African coast, consisting of 7 large islands and 6 smaller, experience. If it were the universal or the general the latter uninhabited. The total area of the archipelago is experience of the medical profession that cancer is more 2944 square miles. The population in 1877 was 283,532, frequently met with than formerly, the testimony would in 1897, 334,521. The archipelago forms one Spanish carry great weight, but there is no evidence of any such province, of which the capital is Santa Cruz de Tenerife, experience. The fact that a limited number of practithe residence of the civil governor, who has under his com- tioners have of late years met with an increased number mand one of the two districts into which the archipelago of cases, or that more cancer patients have found their is divided, this first district comprising Tenerife, La Palma, way into certain hospitals, is of little value. It may be