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568

CAPE

COLONY

[history

greatest industrial asset which the colony possesses. At Moirosi, whose cattle-raiding had for some time past caused the time of the beginning of the diamond industry, both considerable trouble. His stronghold was taken after very Cape Colony and the Boer Republics, as well as all the severe fighting by a colonial force, but, their defeat notrest of the colonies of South Africa, were in a very de- withstanding, the Basutos remained in a restless and pressed condition. Ostrich-farming was in its infancy, aggressive condition for several years. In 1880 the and agriculture but little developed. The Boers, except colonial authorities endeavoured to extend to Basutoland in the immediate vicinity of Cape Town, were a primitive the Peace Preservation Act of 1878, under which a people. Their wants were few, they lacked enterprise, general disarmament of the Basutos was attempted. and the trade of the colony was restricted. Even the Further fighting followed on this proclamation, which British colonists at that time were far from rich. The was by no means successful, and although peace was diamond industry therefore offered considerable attrac- declared in the country in 1883, the colonial authorities tions, especially to colonists of British origin. It was were very glad in 1884 to be relieved of the adminisalso the means at length of demonstrating the fact that tration of a country which had already cost them South Africa, barren and poor on the surface, was rich £3,000,000. The Imperial Government then took over below the surface. It takes ten acres of Karroo to feed Basutoland as a Crown colony, on the understanding that a sheep, but it was now seen that a few square yards of Cape Colony should contribute for administrative purdiamondiferous blue ground would feed a dozen families. poses £18,000 annually. In 1880, Sir Bartle Frere, By the end of 1871 a large population had already who by his energetic and statesmanlike attitude on the gathered at the diamond fields, and immigration con- relations with the native states, as well as on all other tinued steadily, bringing new-comers to the rich fields. questions, had won the esteem and regard of loyal South Among those who emigrated to South Africa at that time African colonists, was recalled by Lord Kimberley, the Liberal Secretary of State for the Colonies, and was was Mr Cecil Rhodes. So far back in the history of the colony as 1858, the succeeded by Sir Hercules Robinson. Griqualand West, then Governor, Sir George Grey, had prepared for the which included the diamond fields, was now incorporated home authorities a scheme for the federation of the as a portion of Cape Colony. The Boer war of 1881, with its disastrous termination, various colonies and states of South Africa, but this proposition was not entertained at the time. In 1875, naturally reacted throughout South Africa; and as one of Lord Carnarvon, who was Secretary of State for the the most important results, in the year 1882 the first Colonies, and who had been successful in aiding to bring Afrikander Bond Congress was held at Graaff Reinet. about the federation of Canada, turned his attention to The organization of the Bond developed into one ema similar scheme for the confederation of South Africa. bracing the Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Cape The new Parliament at Cape Town, which had received Colony. Each country had a provincial committee with its privileges of self-government in 1872, appears to have district committees, and branches were distributed throughresented the despatch in which he propounded his sugges- out the whole of South Africa. _ At a later date the Bond tions, and passed a resolution stating that any scheme in in the Cape Colony dissociated itself from its Republican favour of confederation must in their opinion oiiginate branches. The general lines of policy which this organizawithin South Africa itself. James Anthony Froude, the tion endeavoured to promote may best be gathered from distinguished historian, was sent out by Lord Carnarvon to De Patriot, a paper published in the colony, and an further his policy in South Africa. As a diplomatist and avowed supporter of the organization. The following exa representative of the British Government, the general tracts from articles published in 1882 will illustrate, opinion in South Africa was that Froude was not a better than anything else, the ambition entertained by success, and he entirely failed to induce the colonists some of the promoters of this remarkable organization. “The Afrikander Bond has for its object the establishment of a to adopt Lord Carnarvon’s views. In 1876, Fingoland, South African Nationality by spreading a true love for what is the Idutywa reserve, and Noman’s-land, tracts of country really our fatherland. No better time could be found mr estabhshon the Kaffir frontier, were annexed to Cape Colony, on ino- the Bond than the present, when the consciousness of nationhas been thoroughly aroused by the Transvaal war. . . . the understanding that the Cape Government should pro- ality £ vide for their government. Lord Carnarvon, still bent on ‘ The British Government keep on talking about a confederation the British flag, but that will never be brought about. They confederation, now appointed Sir Bartle Frere Governor under can be quite certain of that. There is just one obstacle m the way of of Cape Colony and High Commissioner of South Africa. confederation, and that is the British flag. Let them remove that Frere had no sooner taken office as High Commissioner, and in less than a year the confederation would be established than he found himself confronted with serious native under the Free Afrikander flag.” “ After a time the English wi that the advice given them by Froude was the best they troubles in Zululand and on the Kaffir frontier of Cape realize must just have Simon’s Bay as a naval and military station on theColony. In 1877 there occurred an outbreak on the way to India, and give over all the rest of South Afuca to th part of the Galekas and the Gaikas. A considerable Afrikanders.” . . . “ Our principal weapon in the social war must force of Imperial and Colonial troops was employed to be the destruction of English trade by our establishing trading for ourselves.” . . .. “ ^he duty of each true put down this rising, and the war was subsequently companies Afrikander not to spend anything with the English that he can known as the Ninth Kaffir war. This war was the last avoid.” of a long series which the colonists waged on the eastern De Patriot afterwards became imperialist, but Ons Land,, frontier ever since the colony came into existence. At another Bond organ, continued in much the same strain. its conclusion the Transkei, the territory of the Galeka In addition to having its press organs, the Bond from tribe, under Kreli, was annexed by the British. In the meantime Lord Carnarvon had resigned his position in time to time published official utterances less frank m their tone than the statements of its press. Some of the the British Cabinet, and the scheme for confederation Articles of the Bond’s original manifesto are entirely which he had been pushing forward was abandoned. As praiseworthy, e.g., those referring to the administration of a matter of fact, at that time Cape Colony was too fully justice, the honour of the people, &c.; such clauses as occupied with native troubles to take into consideration these, however, were meaningless in view of the envery seriously so great a question as confederation.. A lightened government which obtained in Cape Colony, wave of feeling spread amongst the different Kaffir tribes and for the true “inwardness” of this document it is on the colonial frontier, and after the Gaika-Galeka war necessary to note Article 3, which distinctly speaks oi there followed in 1879 a rising in, Basutoland under