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CAPE

VERDE — CAPITAL

production of the latter. The old flat-roofed style of architecture is being gradually eliminated, and fine structures of modern design are rising in every part. The most noteworthy streets from the architectural point of view are Adderley Street, the fashionable business quarter, in which stand the Railway Station, the new General PostOffice, and the Standard Bank; and Queen Victoria Street, looking into the Gardens, in which are the City Club, the New Supreme Courts, the Art School, the Huguenot Memorial Hall, and, at a later date, the University Buildings. At present there are no University buildings, but a site and a large sum of money for building have been bequeathed to the University. The Parliament Houses have been completed, but a new and worthier Anglican cathedral is still a desideratum. Of the other public buildings, apart from those noticed in Ency. Brit., ninth edition, there are the South African College, with antiquated buildings except for the modern chemical and physical laboratories • the South African Museum, a well-equipped modern building in the centre of the Botanical Gardens, quite apart from the Public Library; and the Good Hope Seminary for Girls. The suburbs of Cape Town, for natural beauty of position, are among the finest in the world. On the west they extend for about three miles, by Green Point to Sea Point, between the sea and the foot of the Lion’s Rump • on the east they run round the foot of the Devil’s Peak, by Woodstock, Mowbray, Rondebosch, Claremont, &c., to Wynberg, a distance of 7 miles. Though these are managed by various municipalities, there is practically no break in the buildings for the whole ten miles. All the parts are connected by the suburban railway service, and by an electric tramway system. A branch of the tramway is in process of construction over the “nek” between Table Mountain and the Lion’s Head, to Camp’s Bay, on the west coast, and a branch of the railway is being constructed from Cape Town round the head of Table Bay towards Blaauwber^, with a view to the laying out of a new marine suburb. Trade has considerably increased in Cape Town, though it is still smaller than that of Port Elizabeth. In 1899 the goods landed amounted in value to about 5y millions sterling. The exports cannot well be compared with those from other ports, as they include the diamonds and bar gold from the whole of South Africa. In 1899 the total was over £11,000,000. In 1891 the population of Cape Town proper was 51,251, almost equally divided between white and coloured. The population of the whole Cape peninsula at the same date was about 100,000, the balance, also equally divided, being found mostly in the Cape Town suburbs. (r. m‘w.) Cape Verde Islands, The, on the West African coast, between 17° 13' and 14° 47' N. lat., and 22° 45' and 26 22' W. long., consisting of fourteen islands and islets, all belonging to Portugal. Area, 1475 square miles; population (1896), 139,796. The principal product of the soil is coffee, cultivated chiefly on the islands of Santo Antao, Fogo, and Sao Thiago. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas) grows abundantly and well, also the sugar-cane, millet, and vegetables. Excellent oranges are grown. Every variety of live stock is kept, especially cattle, on Sao Thiago, Fogo, and Boa Vista. The principal industries, apart from agriculture, are the manufacture of sugar, spirits, salt, cottons, straw hats, and fish-curing. The total exports amounted in 1896 to a value of £85,800, and the imports (including £198,200 for coal for passing steamboats) to £354,670. The most important of the exports were coffee (£39,100), physic-tree seed (£20,450), millet (£17,100), sugar, spirits, salt, live animals, skins, and fish. This trade is principally carried on with Lisbon and the Portuguese posses-

PUNISHMENT

575

sions on the west coast of Africa, and with passing vessels. The imports consist principally of textiles (£43,350), ood-stuffs (£23,100), wine, metals, tobacco, machinery, pottery, vegetables, &c. In 1899 the ports of the archipelago were entered by a total of 3225 vessels of 3,548,065 C0a iruf* ^ f°r 326,577 Passing steamboats, in 106 steamers with tons cargo. was Theimported total imor s same P ^ ^ year were £345,111, and the exports r £47,777.

on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. The site has been placed at Tell Hum, where are the ruins of a synagogue, now the property of the Franciscans, and extensive remains; at Khan Minyeh; and at et-Tabgha. At Kerazeh, 3 miles north of Tell Hum, are the ruins of Chorazin. Ca.pitSl.l Punishment.—By this term is meant the infliction of the penalty of death for crime under the sentence of some properly constituted authority, as distinguished from killing the offender as a matter of selfdefence or private vengeance, or his execution under the order of some self-constituted or irregular tribunal unknown to the law, such as that of the Vigilantes of California, or of lynch law as practised in the Southern and Western of the United States. In the early stages of society manslayers were killed by the avengers of blood on behalf of the family of the man killed, and nistorynot as representing the authority of the State. This mode of dealing with homicide survives in the vendetta of Corsica and of the Mainotes in Greece, and in certain of the. Southern States of North America. The obligation or inclination to take vengeance depends on the fact of homicide, and not on the circumstances in which it was committed, i.e., it is a part of the lex talionis. The mischief of this system was alleviated under the Levitical law by the creation of cities of refuge, and in Greece and Italy, both in lagan and Christian times, by the recognition of the right of sanctuary in temples and churches. A second mode of dealing with homicide was that known to early Teutonic and early Celtic law, where the relatives of the deceased, instead of the life of the slayer, received the wer of the deceased, i.e., a payment in proportion to the rank of the slain, and the king received the blood-wite for the loss of his man. But even under this system certain crimes were in Anglo-Saxon law bot-less, i.e., no compensation could be paid, and the offender must suffer the penalty of death. United Kingdom.—The modes of capital punishment in England under the Saxon and Danish kings were various : hanging, beheading, burning, drowning, stoning, and precipitation from rocks. The principle on which this variety depends is that where an offence was BrJtIsb and such as to entitle the king to outlaw the offender, foreign ^ he forfeited all, life and limb, lands and goods, laws and and that the king might take his life and choose metbodsthe mode of death. William the Conqueror would not permit judgment of death to be executed, and substituted mutilation; but his successors varied somewhat in their policy as to capital punishment, and by the 13th century the penalty of death became by usage (without legislation) the usual punishment for high and petty treason and for all felonies (except mayhem and petty larceny, i.e., theft of property worth less than Is.). It therefore included all the more serious form of offences against person or property, such as murder, manslaughter, arson, highway robbery, burglary (or hamesucken), and larceny; and when statutory felonies were created they were also punishable by death unless the statute otherwise provided. The death penalty was also extended to heretics under the writ de heretieo comburendo, which was lawfully issuable under statute