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Carniola, and the name was originally written Kopriva; in the 18th century one branch settled in Wernigerode, and several members entered the Prussian service; the father of the Chancellor held a high judicial post, and was made a life member of the Prussian House of Lords. Caprivi was educated in Berlin, and entered the army in 1849; he took part in the campaign of 1866, being attached to the staff of the 1st army. In 1870 he served as chief of the staff to the 10th army corps, which formed part of the 2nd army, and took part in the battles before Metz as well as in those round Orleans, in which he highly distinguished himself. After the peace he held several important military offices, and in 1883 was made Chief of the Admiralty, in which post he had to command the fleet and to organize and represent the department in the Reichstag. He resigned in 1888, when the command was separated from the representation in Parliament, and was appointed commander of the 10th army corps. Bismarck had already referred to him as a possible successor to himself, for Caprivi had shown great administrative ability, and was unconnected with any political party; and in March 1890 he was appointed Chancellor, Prussian Minister President, and Foreign Minister. He was quite unknown to the public, and the choice caused some surprise, but it was fully justified. The chief events of his administration, which lasted for four years, are narrated elsewhere, in the article on Germany. He showed great ability in quickly mastering the business, with which he was hitherto quite unacquainted, as he himself acknowledged; his speeches in the Reichstag were admirably clear, dignified, and to the point. His first achievements were the treaty with Great Britain in 1890, for which he was bitterly attacked by the colonial parties. The commercial treaties with Austria, Ptumania, &c., followed; by concluding them he earned the express Capitanata, the former name, down to 1871, of commendation of the Emperor and the title of Count, the Italian province of Foggia. but he was from this time relentlessly attacked by the Capiz, the capital of the province of the same name Agrarians, who made it a ground for their distrust that in the Island of Panay, Philippine Islands. It is some he was not himself a landed proprietor; and from this five miles from the north coast, on a river of sufficient time he had to depend much on the support of the Liberals depth to admit small steamers. It is a healthful, and other parties who had been formerly in opposition. although rather hot, town, with good government The reorganization of the army caused a parliamentary buildings. Alcohol is manufactured in large quantities crisis, but he carried it through successfully, only, howfrom the fermented juice of the nipa palm, which grows ever, to earn the enmity of the more old-fashioned soldiers, plentifully in the neighbouring swamps. Rice and sugar who would not forgive him for shortening the period of are raised in abundance. Tobacco, Indian corn, and service. His position was seriously compromised by the cacao are produced to a limited extent. Fishing, and the failure in 1892 to carry an Education Bill which he had weaving of fabrics of cotton, hemp, and pine-apple fibre defended by saying that the question at issue was Christiare important industries. The language is Visayan. anity or Atheism, and he resigned the presidency of the Prussian ministry, which was then given to Count EulenPopulation, 25,000. burg. In 1894 a difference arose between Eulenburg and Capo d’lstria, a fortified seaport town of Austria Caprivi concerning the bill for an amendment of the in the margraviate of Istria. In addition to the produc- Criminal Code (the Umsturz Vorlage), and in October the tion of salt, its principal industries are weaving, dyeing, Emperor dismissed both. Caprivi’s fall was probably the and shipbuilding. Trade is chiefly in sea-salt, wine, and work of the Agrarians, but it was also due to the fact oil. It is also a sea-bathing resort. Population (1890), that, while he showed very high ability in conducting 10,706; (1900), 10,711, mostly Italian. the business of the country, he made no attempt to secure Capri, an island of the province of Naples, Campania, his personal position by forming a party either in ParliaItaly at the S. entrance of the Gulf of Naples. It is ment or at Court. He interpreted his position rather as visited by some 30,000 strangers every summer, whilst a soldier; he did his duty, but did not think of defending many German and other artists stay there, all the year himself. He suffered much from the attacks made on round. The air is pure, the winter mean being 50° Fahr. him by the followers of Bismarck, and he was closely The island is also famous for its wine. Since 1874 there associated with the social ostracism of that statesman; has been a driving-road up to Anacapri (pop. 2500). we do not know, however, in regard either to this or to Population of Capri, the chief town, 3(00; of the entire the other events of his administration, to what, extent Caprivi was really the author of the policy he carried out, island, about 6500. Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuc- and to what extent he was obeying the orders of the Emperor. With a loyalty which cannot be too highly coli, Georg Leo von, Count 831-1899), German soldier and statesman, was born 24th February praised, he always refused, even after his abrupt dis1831 at Charlottenburg. The family springs from missal, to justify himself, and he could not be persuaded

reported in 1866 (Pari. Pap. 1866, 10,438). The commission took the opinions of all the judges of the supreme courts in the United Kingdom and of many other eminent persons, and collected the laws of other countries so far as this was ascertainable. The commissioners differed on the question of the expediency of abolishing or retaining capital punishment, and did not report thereon. But they recommended : (1) that it should be restricted throughout the United Kingdom to high treason and murder; (2) alteration of the law of homicide so as to classify homicides according to their gravity, and to confine capital punishment to murder in the first degree; (3) modification of the law as to child murder so as to punish certain cases of infanticide as misdemeanours; (4) authorizing direct sentence of death to be recorded; (5) the abolition of public executions. Of these suggestions Parliament has carried out only the last, from which the commissioners averse from capital punishment dissented; and it is improbable that the question will again assume any importance until a criminal code is introduced. At the present time, when a trial for murder takes place, there is frequently a good deal of newspaper agitation for reprieve of the prisoner. But this is usually dictated more by desire to re-try the case in the Press, and to criticize the evidence or the tribunal, than to advocate the theories of absolute opponents to capital punishment. Authorities.—Beccaria. DdDelitte edePcne, 1/90. tham. Rationale of PwiMmeriA—Olivecrona. De la Peine de Mart. Mittermaier. Capital Punishment.—Report of the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment (Pari. Pap. 1866. No. 10,438). —Oldfield. The Penalty of Death, 1901.—Pollock and Maitland. History of English Xaz/A—Pike. History of Crime.— Sir J. F. Stephen. History of Crime in England.—S. Walpole. History of England, vol. i. p. 191; vol. iv. p. 74. (w. F. C.)