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CARPEAUX— CARPENTER 603 running south-eastwards from the Poprad for 170 miles E. Andre,” of “ Giraud ” the painter, and of “ Hlle. to the Korosmezo pass, between the upper Pruth and Benedetti ” showed that he was not idle. He was working Tisza, (iii) The eastern triangular mass of the Transyl- at the same time on the decorations of the Pavilion de vanian plateau (1575 feet), enclosed by the Eastern I lore, of which the pediment alone was seen at the Salon, Carpathians (3540 feet) for 220 miles in the east, though the bas-relief below is an even better example of by the Transylvanian Alps (3800 feet) and Banat his style. After producing a statue of the Prince hills (1675 feet) for a similar distance in the south, Imperial, Carpeaux was made Chevalier of the Legion of and by the Bihar mountains (1740 feet) in the west. Honour in 1866. Two years later he received an important The granitic Great Tatra rises to 8737 feet in Gerlach- commission to execute one of the four groups for the falva (Gerlsdorfer or Franz Jozef peak), and is the faqade of the new Opera House. His group, representhydrographic centre of the West Carpathians. From it ing “ Dancing,” 1869, was greeted with indignant protests ; the Dunayec and Poprad flow northwards to the Vistula, it is nevertheless a sound work, full of movement, with no across the Klippen and Sandstone ranges, and divide the fault but that of exceeding the limitations prescribed. In Western from the Eastern Beskids. Longitudinal furrows 1869 he exhibited a “Bust of H. Gamier,” and followed separate the Great Tatra, Little Tatra, the Ore, and M&tra this up with two pieces intended for his native city: mountains. Westwards they are drained by the Vag, a statue of Watteau, and a has - relief, “ Valenciennes Gran, and Ipoly, all curving round to the Danube; and repelling Invasion.” During the Commune he came to eastwards by the fault valley of the Hernad. The Fatra, England and made a “Bust of Gounod” in 1871. His Nytra, and Little Carpathians form a connecting link last important work was a fountain for the Luxembourg between the crystalline zones of Carpathians and Alps. Gardens, representing the “ Four Quarters of the World ” The trachytic Hungarian Ore mountains form the south- as four female figures. Carpeaux, though exhausted by western quadrant of the West Carpathians, and the Matra illness, continued designing indefatigably, till he died at and Hegyalya ranges the southern and eastern arcs. The the Chateau de Becon, near Courbevoie, on 12th October trachytic Vihorlat range rises along the inner margin of 1875, after being promoted to the higher grade of the the Wooded Carpathians, which here form the main Legion of Honour. Hany of his best drawings have been divide. The Eastern Carpathians open in wide valleys to presented by Prince Stir bey to the city of Valenciennes. See also Chesneatj. Le Statuaire Carpeaux. Paris, 1880.— the south-east and south. They are crossed by the Bistritza from the crystalline zone, which reappears on their con- Paul Foucaet. Catalogue du Musee Carpeaux. Paris, 1882. Carpenter, Mary (1807-1877), English educacave side, and is separated in the south from the trachytic Hargita mountains by a longitudinal valley, in which tional and social reformer, was born 3rd April 1807 at the Haros flows northwards and the Aluta southwards. Exeter, where her father, Dr Lant Carpenter, was UnitaNear the Tombs pass, south of the Brasso or Kronstadt rian minister. In 1817 the family removed to Bristol, basin, the sandstone range abruptly ends, and the crystal- where Dr Carpenter was called to the ministry of Lewin’s line schists of the Transylvanian Alps run westwards to Head Heeting. As a child Hary Carpenter was unusually the Banat mountains, where the fold axes curve to south- earnest, with a deep religious vein and a remarkable west and south. The Aluta breaks through them at thoroughness in everything she undertook. She was the Roteturm pass (1155 feet) between the highest educated in her father’s school for boys, learning Latin, summits, Negoi (8320 feet) and Mandra (8270 feet). Greek, and mathematics, and other subjects at that time The Haros crosses the Transylvanian plateau and skirts not generally taught to girls. She early showed an aptithe south of the Bihar mountains, which have a crystal- tude for teaching, taking a class in the Sunday-school, line nucleus—possibly representing the inner portion of and afterwards helping her father with his pupils. When the West Carpathian crystalline region—surrounded by Dr Carpenter gave up his school in 1829, his daughters Carpathian sandstones and trachytic and other young opened a school for girls under Hrs Carpenter’s superinrocks containing many minerals (Transylvanian Ore tendence. In 1833 the Raja Rammohun Roy visited Bristol, and inspired Hiss Carpenter with a warm interest Hountains). (a. j. he.) in India; and Dr Joseph Tuckerman of Boston about the Carpeaux, Jean Baptiste (1827-1875), same time aroused her sympathies for the condition of French sculptor, was born at Valenciennes, France, on destitute children. One day when she was walking with 14th Hay 1827. He was the son of a mason, and passed him through one of the worst Bristol slums, a wretchedhis early life in extreme poverty. In 1842 he came to looking boy rushed out of a dark entry and ran wildly Paris, and after working for two years in a drawing-school, past them. “That child,” said her companion, “should was admitted to the Nicole des Beaux-Arts on 9th Septem- be followed to his home and seen after.” These words ber 1854. The Grand Prix de Rome was awarded to his gave the first stimulus to what became her life-work. statue of “ Hector bearing in his arms his son Astyanax.” The first step was to help to organize, in 1835, a “WorkHis first work exhibited at the Salon, in 1853, did not ing and Visiting Society.” It was a sort of district-visiting show the spirit of an innovator, and was very unlike the scheme, which in those days seemed a startling new deparwork of his master Rude. At Rome he was fascinated by ture. Hiss Carpenter was its secretary for twenty years. Donatello, and yet more influenced by Hichael Angelo, to In 1843 her interest in negro emancipation was aroused whom he owes his feeling for vehement and passionate by a visit from Dr Howe. Her interest in general educaaction. He sent from Rome a bust, “ La Palombella,” tional work was also growing. A Bill introduced in this 1856; and a “Neapolitan Fisherman,” 1858. This work year “ to make provision for the better education of was again exhibited in the Salon of 1859, and took a second- children in manufacturing districts,” as a first instalment class medal; but it was not executed in marble till 1863. of a scheme of national education, failed to pass, largely In his last year in Rome he sent home a dramatic group, owing to Nonconformist opposition, and private efiort “ Ugolino and his Sons,” and exhibited at the same time a became doubly necessary. So-called “ Ragged Schools ” “ Bust of Princess Hathilde.” This gained him a second- sprang up in many places, and Hiss Carpenter conceived class medal and the favour of the Imperial family. In the plan of starting one in Lewin’s Head. To this was 1864 he executed the “Girl with a Shell,” the companion added a night-school for adults. In spite of many diffifigure to the young fisherman; and although in 1865 culties this was rendered a success, chiefly owing to Hiss he did not exhibit at the Salon, busts of “ Hme. A. Carpenter’s unwearied enthusiasm and remarkable organ-