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CASSAN O — CASTELAR bottom of tlie gulf is covered for an area of about ment of 1854 took place and the young liberals and 1300 square miles with a layer of Epsom salt, which democrats of that epoch decided to hold a meeting in the represents a quite unique formation in nature of a stock of largest theatre of the capital. On that occasion Castelar about 1,000,000,000 tons of that salt. Owing to the delivered his maiden speech, which at once placed him in the van of the advanced politicians of the reign of Queen slight depth of the gulf, this could be easily extracted. Authorities.—Besides the works mentioned in the ninth edition, Isabella. From that moment he took an active part in see Ivashintseff, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea, politics, radical journalism, literary and historical pursuits. St Petersburg, 1866 (Russian), 2 vols., with a hydrographical Castelar was compromised in the first rising of June 1866, atlas; N. Pushchin, Caspian Sea, 1877 ; Filippoff, Marine which was concerted by Marshal Prim, and crushed, after Geography of the Caspian Basin, 1877 ; Memoirs (Trudy) of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-77, 2 vols., edited by the much bloodshed, in the streets by Marshals O’Donnell and St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; N. Andrusov, “A Sketch Serrano. A court-martial condemned him in contumaciam of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants” to death by “ garote vil,” and he had to hide in the house (Zapiski of the Buss. Geogr. Soc.; General Geogr., vol. xxiv.) ; of a friend until he escaped to France. There he lived two (all Russian) ; Eichwald, Fauna Caspio-caucasica. A K ) years until the successful revolution of 1868 allowed him to return and enter the Cortes for the first time—as deputy Cassano, a town of the province of Milan, Lom- for Zaragossa. At the same time he resumed the profesbardy, Italy, 16 miles E. by N. from Milan by rail to sorship of history at the Madrid university. Castelar Brescia, and on the river Adda, here crossed by a long soon became famous by his rhetorical speeches in the stone bridge. It is famous for the defeat of Prince Eugene, Constituent Cortes of 1869, where he led the republican commanding the Austrians, by the French under Vendome minority in advocating a federal republic as the logical in 1705, and for the defeat of Moreau by the Austro- outcome of the recent revolution. He thus gave much Bussian army under Suvoroff in 1799. Its manufactures trouble to men like Serrano, Topete, and Prim, who had include linen, silk, pottery, and ropes. Population, about never harboured the idea of drifting into advanced 5250. democracy, and who had each his own scheme for reCassel, a town of Prussia, capital of the province of establishing the monarchy with certain constitutional Hesse-Nassau, 124 miles by rail N.N.E. from Frankfort- restrictions. Hence arose Castelar’s constant and vigorous on-Main, on the river Fulda. A building was erected in criticisms of the successive plans mooted to place a 1871-77 to accommodate the picture gallery as well as Hohenzollern, a Portuguese, the duke of Montpensier, collections of porcelain and pottery and industrial art. Espartero, and finally Amadeus of Savoy on the throne. There are also the Bose Museum, the museums of natural He attacked with relentless vigour the shortlived monarchy history and ethnography, an industrial exhibition hall, of Amadeus, and contributed to its downfall. The abdication of Amadeus led to the proclamation of and an industrial art school. A Lutheran church (Gothic) was erected in 1892-97, a post office (Renaissance) in ^1881, the federal republic. The senate and congress, very and new administrative offices and law courts in 1876-80. largely composed of monarchists, permitted themselves to The public library contains considerably over 150,000 be dragged along into democracy by the republican volumes. The most noticeable of the public monuments minority headed by Salmeron, Figueras, Pi y Margall, and recently set up are those to the Emperor William I. (1898), Castelar. The shortlived federal republic from 11th to the musician Spohr (1883), and the lion fountain February 1873 to 3rd January 1874 was the culminating (1881). The towers of St Martin’s church were rebuilt in point of the career of Castelar, and his conduct during 1889-92. Cassel is the headquarters of the 11th German those eleven months has been much praised by the wiser army corps. There are here a military school, a medical portion of his fellow-countrymen, though it alienated from college, an academy of the plastic arts, and a trades him the sympathies of the majority of his quondam school. The industries embrace the making of railway friends in the republican ranks. Before the revolution of 1868, Castelar had begun carriages, machinery, scientific instruments, porcelain, tobacco and cigars, lithography, jute - spinning iron- to dissent from the doctrines of the more advanced founding, brewing, and gardening. Population (1885), republicans, and particularly as to the means to be employed for their success. He abhorred bloodshed, he 64,083; (1900), 106,001. disliked mob rule, he did not approve of military proCassino, a town of Campania, Italy, in the province nurnciamientos. His ideal would have been a parliaof Caserta, 42 miles N.W. from Capua by railway. It mentary republic on the American lines, with some traits took the place of the ancient Casinum; but all through of the Swiss constitution to keep in touch with the regionthe Middle Ages, and later, it was known as San Germano, alist and provincialist inclinations of many parts of the but in 1871 returned to its original name of Cassino. The peninsula. He would have placed at the head of his place possesses some remains of antiquity, as an amphi- commonwealth a president and Cortes freely elected by theatre and an antique funeral monument, now converted the people, ruling the country in a liberal spirit and with into the Church of the Crucifixion. At Casinum was the due respect for conservative principles, religious traditions, villa of M. Terentius Yarro, made notorious by the orgies and national unity. Such a statesman was sure to clash of Mark Antony (Cic. Phil. ii. 40). Population, about with the doctrinaires, like Salmeron, who wanted to imitate 13,500. French methods; with Pi y Margall, who wanted a federal Castelar y Ripoll, Emilio (1832-1899), republic after purely Spanish ideas of decentralization; and Spanish statesman, was born at Cadiz on 8th Sep- above all with the intransigent and gloomy fanatics who tember 1832. At the age of seven he lost his became the leaders of the cantonal insurrections at Cadiz, father who had taken an active part in the progressist Seville, Valencia, Malaga, and Cartagena in 1873. At first Castelar did his best to work with the other agitations during the reign of Ferdinand VII , and republican members of the first government of the federal had passed several years as an exile m England. He attended a grammar-school at Sax. In 1848 he began to republic. He accepted the post of minister for foreign study law in Madrid, but soon elected to compete for affairs. He even went so far as to side with his colleagues, admittance at the school of philosophy and letters, where when serious difficulties arose between the new government he took the degree of doctor in 1853. He was an obscure and the president of the Cortes, Sehor Martos, who was republican student when the Spanish revolutionary move- backed by a very imposing commission composed of the mos

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