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634

CENSUS

the compilation of population figures for 966 new relation was 78'4, 10*8, and 10'8 per cent. Scotland stands where she did in 1821, but England has gained and areas. In the ensuing decade 44 of these were absorbed nearly Ireland lost about 21 per cent, in the scale. The following in their neighbours, 89 fresh ones were constituted, percentages show that the rate of variation has been by no means and 138 altered in boundaries. Three-fourths of the regular throughout the period in question :— 14,600 civil parishes, again, were similarly modified, — 1881-91. 1891-1901. 1861-71. 1831-41. 1841-51. and changes of areas under the Local Government and j Redistribution Acts added to the labour of tabulation, j England Material improvements were effected in the classifi- j and Wales 15-8 14-5 12-9 11-9 13-2 14-4 11-7 12-17 6-0 9-7 11-2 7-8 iri 10-8 10-2 cation of occupations; and in 1891, upon the recom- j jc°1tla^<i ' 139-1 5-3 5-5 19-8 11-8 6'7 14mendation of the Treasury Committee appointed for 1 ie an the purpose, additional columns were included in the j United 9-9 5-6 8-8 10-8 2-5 schedule in order to show separately the employers of j Kingdom1 15-0 11-2 labour, the employed, and the independent worker, an innovation which, however, failed, owing to inaccuracy of Comparison of the census figures with the birth and death returns indicates that since 1851 emigration has been the chief return, to fulfil anticipations. The subdivision of houses retarding influence in all three countries ; while in England, at all into separate occupancies was also prescribed, together with events, the correlation of the age, birth, and marriage returns seems to indicate a tendency to diminishing fecundity due both to the return of the number of rooms, where less than five, occupied by each family. The Act regulating the census relatively fewer marriages and to the later age at which women the conjugal state. A marked decline in the death-rate, in of 1901 further simplified the record by substituting the enter fact, is slightly outweighed by the falling-off in the rate of births. term tenement for storey, and providing for the separate In relation to the area of the three countries, the weight of the record of houses altogether uninhabited as distinguished population upon a square mile has risen in England and Wales from those occupied only during the daytime. The record from 153 in 1801 to 558 in 1901. In Scotland the addition has been from 54 to 150, and in Ireland the burden has fallen from 166 of nationality, again, was further extended at the 1901 to 137. census beyond the mere specification of the British subBritish Colonies and Dependencies.—In Canada and the Cape the jects born abroad, and included that of all persons not predecessors of the British in European colonization had begun born within the United Kingdom. In 1891 a return was early in the history of their enterprise to take stock periodically of population and resources of the tracts occupied. In Canada obtained of all persons in Wales and Monmouth speaking the the first return was prepared as early as 1665, and the Netherlands either Welsh only or both Welsh and English, but owing East India Company obtained a rough return in 1687 for the Cape. to the imperfection of the results it was prescribed that These, however, can scarcely be included under the head of census, the corresponding return for 1901 should include those since they were based upon locally-prepared reports mainly relating agriculture and cattle. Similarly, in New South Wales, who speak English only, and should exclude children to “ musters ” were held annually from the year of settlement; but it under three years old. In Scotland a similar return of was not till 1828 that these assumed the form of a census, and the those who speak Gaelic was obtained in 1881, extended at first regular enumeration was that of 1841, in which Tasmania the next census, and made to correspond with the return and New Zealand joined. A census of Cape Colony was taken in 1865, and has been succeeded by others in 1875 and 1891. Natal for Wales for the enumeration of 1901. The complexity initiated the operation in the last-named year. In Australia, of areas does not exist north of the Tweed to anything Queensland has taken a census quinquennially since 1875, and like the extent to which it prevails in England, but the New Zealand since 1881. Uniformity in the procedure of 1891 Local Government Act for Scotland of 1889 afforded was secured by a Congress of Statists held in the preceding year. took its first general census in 1871, a year which may be means of simplification of which great advantage was Canada considered the starting-point of the imperial enumeration. India taken in the census of 1891. The definition of a was not included in the synchronous undertaking until 1881, house in the north was changed in 1881 so as to corre- when a population of 254 millions, raised in 1901 to 294 millions, spond with that in use in England, since previously the placed the operation at the head of all census enterprise. Each and dependency adopts a separate system, and adds such tenement in the former was the house of the latter, colony columns to those relating to the primary statistical facts forming and mce versd. For the census of 1901 Scotland was the basis of the census as may be required to obtain detail for local included with England in a single Act, with the purposes. Canada, for instance, follows the plan of the United necessary modification in nomenclature and other detail. States, and issues a schedule so voluminous that the official enumerator, specially instructed, has to fill it up, as in Ireland, The census of Ireland continues to differ from that of the instead of the householder, and is allowed a month or so for the sister island—first, in that the enumeration is undertaken purpose. In India the same plan is necessary for a far simpler by the constabulary and the schedule not left to be filled schedule by reason of the general illiteracy of the people, and the up by the householder; secondly, in the wider use made census has to be divided accordingly into two operations, the of statistics other than those directly collected at the preliminary filling up of the record and the final checking it on census night. In several of the governments the census has census; thirdly, in the collection of statistics of religious the been hitherto confined to the towns or to persons of European denomination, this part of the return, however, being left descent, and excludes altogether the often large native population, optional in 1881 and 1891 with the person enumerated. as in Natal and the settlements in Borneo and West Africa, or is Advantage was taken of this relaxation of the rule in no satisfied with a rough tribal tally, by families or otherwise, furby the chiefs or headmen. In round numbers, the total more than 530 cases on the former occasion, and 871, nished enumerated population of the British empire is 353 millions, chiefly in Ulster, on the latter. Finally, a return of whilst the tracts which still remain uncensused contain an estitemporary illness, of literacy, and fuller detail of house mated population of about 44 millions, chiefly in Africa. As accommodation is here required, under the authority of compared with this total of 397 millions there is the figure of 235 millions published with the census of 1871, that of 254 millions the Local Government, in 1881, and of 372 millions ten years later, none of them claiming The results of the enumerations described above will be found more than approximation to accuracy or relating to identical areas. under other heads, and only their most general features need be Other Countries.—?a.xta. enumerations of population and stock here set forth. Between the first general census of 1801 and that were undertaken in several European countries as early as the 17th of 1901 the population of the three kingdoms as a whole increased century on much the same lines as those prescribed by the French by 161 per cent. In the case of England and Wales the growth authorities in Lower Canada soon after the country was settled. amounted to 271-6 per cent. Scotland shows an increase of These operations, however, were generally directed towards a 178 whilst Ireland fell off to the extent of 1/3. Thus in special administrative object such as taxation or military service, 1821, when the census was first taken on a uniform system, the and, being conducted more or less independently by the authorities distribution of the total population was in the proportion of 57;4 of parishes or similar small areas, do not come under the head ot per cent, in England, 10-0 in Scotland, and 32-6 in Ireland ;m 1851 the first had risen to 65'5, the second to 10-6, and the third Omitting Man and the Channel Islands. had fallen to 23-9 per cent., whilst in 1901 the corresponding