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696

CHARTERED

COMPANIES

control of the chief native commissioners at Salisbury and relations between the natives and the company’s servants Bulawayo respectively. The system of land apportionment appear to have been most satisfactory, an inference which adopted in Mashonaland was followed in the new territory. is borne out by the peaceable attitude of the former “Stands” or plots were sold at extraordinary prices in during the Boer war. In 1896 it was found necessary to Bulawayo; 539 fetched a total of <£153,312, about £285 appoint a puisne judge to preside over the high court at a stand. In within nine months Bulawayo had a popula- Bulawayo. So far back as 1891 a system of municipal as tion of 1900 whites, and in the various goldfields over distinguished from military police had been inaugurated, 2000 prospectors. The construction of telegraphs proceeded and, following the precedent of Cape Colony, sanitary with great rapidity, and by the end of 1895, 500 miles of boards were formed to regulate the municipal affairs of the new lines had been constructed, making about 1500 in all. several townships. At the public request, and in order A new company, the “African Transcontinental Company,” that the ratepayers should enjoy a fuller measure of conhad been founded under the auspices of Mr Rhodes, with trol, regulations for the constitution of municipalities were the ultimate purpose of connecting the Cape with Cairo. framed by the administration and promulgated in SepBy the end of 1895, 313 miles of these lines had been tember 1897. Under the provisions thus enacted, the sanitary boards of Salisbury and Bulawayo gave place to laid. The events of 1896 brought a rude change on this duly constituted municipal councils, and the first mayors smiling prospect. In that disastrous year occurred the were elected for the two towns in that year. On the 25th November 1898 the Southern Rhodesia Jameson Raid, the Mashona and Matabele revolt, and the outbreak of rinderpest, which killed nearly all the beasts Order in Council became law. Southern Rhodesia was of burden in the country. The rebellions were finally put divided into two provinces, Mashonaland and Matabeleland, down in the early part of 1897, but when the cost to the with separate administrators. The order further provided company of these misfortunes came to be reckoned up it for a high court of Southern Rhodesia and for the constiwas found to amount to at least £2,500,000 sterling. All tution of executive and legislative councils, and made other this involved the company in a heavy debt, and in April changes in the administrative organization. North-Western Rhodesia is also known as Barotseland. 1898 it was resolved, at a general meeting of shareholders, The principal native chief is King Lewanika, and the repreto increase the capital by £1,500,000 sterling, only onesixth of which was issued in shares at once. At the same sentative of the company resides at his court. He is favourmeeting it was enthusiastically resolved to proceed again ably disposed to white men. There is a force of thirty white with the work of the company. In consequence of the police quartered in the Batoka plateau, besides a force of events of 1896 the British Government imposed a new or native police. This latter is necessary, for much of this supplemental charter on the company. This charter gave country is almost uninhabitable by whites in the rainy the Government a much stronger hold on the whole season. A new mail service has been arranged. Runners administration of the company than it possessed before. leave Francistown weekly for Kazungala, returning with By this charter the power of the company to make outgoing mails. The delimitation of the boundary is not ordinances was to pass to a legislative council to be yet completed between Barotseland and the Portuguese established for Southern Rhodesia. Duly authorized territory. North-Eastern Rhodesia is divided into districts in agents of the secretary of state were to have access to all the company’s documents. All resolutions passed by the charge of collectors and subdistricts in charge of assistant directors regarding the administration were to be submitted collectors. There are four districts, and through them run to the secretary of state within eight days for his approval 700 or 800 miles of road constructed by the collectors. Deor rejection, and any neglect to comply with these condi- fence is conducted under an arrangement with the British tions was to subject the company’s servant guilty of the Central Africa Protectorate. The civil police number same to the possibility of instant dismissal. Still the about 200. The revenue for the year ending 31st March opening of the railway to Bulawayo in November 1897 1899 amounted to £2275, 18s. 3d., of which about £1000 is seemed to promise a new era of development, and it claimed as owing from sales of ivory given as tribute, and greatly reduced the cost of transport. The population about £565 came from postal charges. As there are no began to increase rapidly, and by 1898 Bulawayo had import or export duties except on ivory, no complete more than 5000 inhabitants. The value of the public record of imports and exports is possible. The area of buildings was estimated at £140,000. There were 1664 this province is estimated at 120,000 square miles, the miles of telegraphs and nearly 850 miles of roads brought whole of which (with the exception of a small portion of into existence through the energy of the company. By the the valley of the Loangwa river) lies over 3000 feet above last balance-sheet issued by the company previous to the the sea. By the beginning of 1899 the company appeared to be outbreak of the Boer war it would appear that the revenue of Rhodesia for the year ending 31st March 189b starting on a new career after the unfortunate reverses amounted to £260,516 net, of which amount the sale of it had sustained in 1896, but a stop was put to all land plots accounts for £63,628; stamps and licenses, progress by the Boer war. The company can point with £69,658; and posts and telegraphs, £46,745, so that the satisfaction to the fact that Rhodesia contributed nearly machinery of civilized life was already in full activity 1500 men to the forces serving in the war, or 12| per where Lo-Bengula’s kraal had stood in 1894. The Govern- cent, of the European population. Of these British South ment buildings were estimated in March 1898 to be worth Africa police supplied 300; Mashonaland volunteers, £165,672, and the assessed value of the town property at 800; Mashonaland squadron, 150; independent volunBulawayo was £2,045,000, and that at Salisbury £750,000. teers estimated at 250. Rhodesia itself was not subjected Education was arranged under the supervision of Govern- to invasion, but the withdrawal of so large a number of ment inspectors, and various religious communities have able-bodied men seriously interfered with the progress of now brought their own organizations to a high state of the country. It must be remembered that the company possesses vast efficiency. In the years 1897-98, 2485 miles of road were being maintained by the company at a cost of £23,500. territories north of the Zambezi already in great part police force of 1322 men maintained order in the two explored, and it is believed that the future will show them provinces, and the hut tax paid by the natives throughout to be rich in mineral we'alth and containing immense the territory amounted to over £19,000. At this time the resources for agricultural and commercial development.