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impression. He was promoted lieut.-colonel, 1869 ; colonel, 1877 ; major-general, 1886 ; lieut.-general, 1887 ; colonelcommandant of Royal Engineers, 1890 ; and general, 1892. From 1881 to 1886 he was secretary to the Military Department of the Government of India, and was made a C.S.I. and a C.I.E. From 1886 to 1892, as military member of the Governor-General's Council, he carried out many much-needed military reforms. He was made a

C.B. at the jubilee of 1887, and a K.C.B. on leaving India in 1892. In that year he was returned to Parliament, in the Conservative interest, as member for Oxford, and was chairman of the committee of service members of the House of Commons until his death on 31st March 1895. He wrote some novels, The Dilemma, The Private Secretary, The Lesters, &c., and was a frequent contributor to periodical literature. (r. h. v.)

CHESS. THE article on Chess in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was written in 1875. W. Norwood Potter, who appended his initials, was one of the foremost English players and writers on the game; he died in 1895. The article was, in essentials, the joint work of Steinitz and Zukertort. Dr J. H. Zukertort died in 1888, five years after his famous victory in the London tournament in 1883, and W. Steinitz survived his great rival about thirteen years. In 1876 England was in the van of the world’s chess army. Two years previously Staunton, for years the English champion, had died. De Yere died a year later in the prime of life, being only twenty-nine years old. The latter was an irreparable loss, and England has produced no chess genius since. English-born players then were Boden, Burn, MacDonnell, Bird, Blackburne, and Potter; whilst among naturalized English players were Lowenthal, Steinitz, Zukertort, and Horwitz. Of this remarkable array of talent only Bird, Blackburne, and Burn survived in 19 01. This illustrious contingent was reinforced in 1878 by Mason, an Irish-American, who came over for the Paris tournament, and by Gunsberg, a Hungarian, and more recently by Teichmann, who also made England his home. English chess under the leadership of the masters mentioned flourished. The chief prizes in tournaments, up to within comparatively recent years, were consistently carried off by the English representatives, as will be seen from the following list of tournaments from 1878 up to date Paris, 1878.—First, Zukertort; second, Winawer; third, Blackburne ; fourth, Mackenzie ; fifth, Bird. Winawer made an equal score with Zukertort, but was beaten in the tie match. Winawer, whose name was unknown, competed for the first time in the Paris tournament, 1867, and to the surprise of everybody he won the second prize (Kolisch being first) amongst competitors like De Yere, Steinitz, Neumann, and Rosenthal. He tied and divided the first and second prizes with Steinitz in Vienna, 1882, and won the first prize at Nuremberg, 1883. In this tournament B. Englisch of Vienna made his first appearance, and the promising talent of which he then gave evidence was fully justified in his career during the next nineteen years. It was also Mason’s first appearance in Europe. Wiesbadest, 1880.—First, second, and third a tie between Blackburne, Englisch, and A. Schwarz. Berlin, 1881.—First, Blackburne ; second, Zukertort; third and fourth, Tchigorin and Winawer ; fifth, Mason. Blackburne, who previously to this tournament was beaten in a match by Zukertort, rehabilitated his reputation by winning the first prize with three games to spare, Zukertort being second. Tchigorin made his first public performance in this contest. Vienna, 1882.—-First and second, Steinitz and Winawer; third, Mason ; fourth and fifth, Mackenzie and Zukertort; sixth, Blackburne. London, 1883.—First, Zukertort; second, Steinitz; third, Blackburne ; fourth, fifth, and sixth equal, Mackenzie, Mason, and Englisch. This tournament, played in two rounds, endowed with large prizes, and the third draw only counting one-half each, was one of the most severe contests held hitherto. Zukertort won the first prize very easily, and also played the finest games. Steinitz challenged him shortly afterwards to a match, but it only came off three years later in America, and ruined Zukertort both in body and mind. Winawer, for the first time in his career, was not even placed. Nuremberg, 1883.—First, Winawer; second, Blackburne; third, Mason ; Bardeleben and Bird taking the other prizes. This

tournament is a milestone in modern chess history. The prizes having been comparatively small, it was thought that it necessarily must be a failure, the munificently endowed London tournament having just been concluded. But, strange to say, whilst in London fourteen players competed, there were nineteen entries in Nuremberg. Winawer, not placed in the former, won the first prize in the latter. A number of young and talented players made their first appearance, amongst them being Fritz, Bardeleben, Hruby, Riemann, Schottlander, Gunsberg, and of older masters L. Paulsen and the famous Dr Max Lange. It is also noteworthy that, having won the “Haupt” tournament at this congress, the afterwards famous Dr Tarrasch gained the title of “master.” Hamburg, 1885.—First, Gunsberg, the next prizes being divided by Blackburne, Mason, Englisch Dr Tarrasch, and Weiss ; seventh, Mackenzie. Max Weiss of Vienna, Englisch’s rival, made his first appearance here. This tournament was remarkable for the fact not only that five players made an equal score, and divided the five prizes after the first, but that Gunsherg wired to London that he had won the first prize, when Mason, who had to finish several adjourned games, could still have tied with him. Hereford, 1885.—First, Blackburne ; second and third, Bird and Schallopp ; fourth, Mackenzie. In this tournament Mason and the late W. H. K. Pollock competed, as well as the wellknown amateurs Rev. A. B. Skipworth, Rev. C. E. Ranken, and the late E. Thorold. London, 1886.—First, Blackburne ; second, Burn ; third and fourth equal, Gunsberg and Taubenhaus ; fifth, Mason; Mackenzie, Bird, Lipschiitz, and Hanham not placed. Nottingham, 1886.—First, Burn; second, Schallopp ; third and fourth equal, Gunsberg and Zukertort. Frankfort, 1887. — First, Mackenzie ; second and third, Blackburne and Weiss ; fourth, Bardeleben ; fifth and sixth, Berger and Tarrasch, followed by Englisch and L. Paulsen. Gunsberg, first in Hamburg, was not placed, nor Burn nor Zukertort. Mackenzie, of Scottish extraction, living in America, deservedly won first prize. Bradford, 1888.—First, Gunsherg ; second, Mackenzie ; third and fourth, Mason and Bardeleben; fifth, Burn, followed by Blackburne and Weiss. New York, 1889.—First and second equal, Tchigorin and Weiss; third, Gunsberg; fourth, Blackburne; fifth, Burn, followed by Lipschiitz and Mason. There were twenty competitors, some Americans playing. Of the latter Lipschiitz only was placed. Breslau, 1889.—First, Dr Tarrasch ; second, Burn ; third, Weiss, followed by Bardeleben and Bauer, Gunsberg and Paulsen equal; Blackburne and Mason, the former for the first time not placed. This tournament is remarkable for the advent of Lasker, who gained his mastership in the “Haupt” tournament. Here also Mieses scored his first success. Amsterdam, 1890. -— First, Burn ; second, Lasker ; third, Mason; fourth, van Vliet; fifth, Gunsberg. There were only nine competitors, Lasker unexpectedly losing to van Vliet by a trap. Manchester, 1890.—First, Dr Tarrasch ; second, Blackburne ; third and fourth, Bird and Mackenzie ; fifth and sixth, Gunsberg and Mason, followed by Alapin, Scheve, and Tinsley. Dresden, 1892.—First, DrTarrasch; second and third, Makovetz and Porges ; fourth and fifth, Marco and Walbrodt; sixth and seventh, Bardeleben and Winawer. Blackburne received only a special prize, Mason not being placed at all. Makovetz, a talented Hungarian, who never played afterwards, made his first appearance, as well as Walbrodt, a Berlin player of promise. The latter did not, however, justify the very high expectations formed of him. Leipzig, 1894.—First, Dr Tarrasch ; second and third, Lipke and Teichmann ; fourth and fifth, Blackburne and Walbrodt; sixth, Janowsky and Marco. It was the first appearance of two great players, Lipke of Halle, and Janowsky, of Polish extraction, living in Paris; also of Teichmann, a well-known English resident, who gave great promise at the time when Lasker became known.