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CHESS Two Knights, for instance, without pawns, become value- various forms. In the ’eighties a valuable work on end less, as no checkmate can be effected with them. In the games was published in England by the late B. Horwitz; majority of cases the players must be guided by general thus for the first time a theoretical classification of the principles, as the standard examples do not meet all cases. art was given. This was followed by a more compreThe handbooks as a rule give a sprinkling of elementary hensive work by Professor J. Berger of Graz, which was endings, such as to checkmate with Queen, Kook, Bishop translated a few years later by the late Mr Freeborough. and Knight, two Bishops, and pawn endings pure and A few specimens of the less accessible positions are simple, as well as pawns in connexion with pieces in given below:— Position from, a Game played by the lute J. G. Campbell in 1863. Position by B. Horwitz. BLACK BLACK. Obviously White has to lose the game, not being able to prevent the pawns from queening. By a remarkably ingenious device White averts the loss of the game by stale-mating himself as follows:— 1. B-Q2, P-Kt7 ; 2. B-R5, P - Kt8 = Q ; 3. P - Kt4 stalemate.

White wins with two pieces against one—a rare occurrence. 1. Kt - K6, B - R3 ; 2. B - Q4 ch, K — R2 ; 3. B — B3, B moves anywhere not enprise; 4. B - Kt7 and Kt mates. •

Position by Surratt, 1808. BLACK.

Position by 0. Schubert. BLACK.



White wins as follows :— 1. P- Kt6, RPxP; 2. P-B6, P (Kt2) x P ; 3. P - R6 and wins by queening the pawn. If 1. . . . BPxP then 2. P-R6, KtP x P; 3. P — B6 and queens the pawn.

WHITE. Position by B. ILorwit.

White wins as follows :— 1. P - Kt5, Kt - Kt5 ; 2. K - B3, Kt - K6 ; 3. B - K6, Kt - B8 ; 4. B x P, Kt - Q7 ch ; 5. K - Kt4, Kt x P ; 6. P - Kt6, Kt - B3, ch ; 7. K-Kt5, P-K5 ; 8. K x Kt, P - K6 ; 9. B - B4, KxB; 10. P - Kt7, P-K7 ; 11. P - Kt8 = Q ch, and wins by the simple process of a series of checks so timed that the King may approach systematically. The fine points in this instructive ending are the two Bishops’ moves, 3. B - K6, and 9. B - B4, the latter move enabling White to queen the pawn with a check. Position by F. Amelung.

As a rule the game should be drawn. Supposing by a series of checks White were to compel Black to abandon the pawn, he would move K - R8 ; Q x P and Black is stale-mate. Therefore the ingenious way to win is :— 1. K-B4, P - B8 = Q ch; KKt3 and wins. Or 1. ... KR8 (threatening P - B8 = Kt) ; then 2. Q - Q2 preliminary to K - Kt3 now wins.

White with the inferior position saves the game as follows:— 1. P-R6, PxP; 2. K-B3 dis. ch, K moves ; 3. R - R2, or Kt2 ch, K X R ; 4. K - Kt2 and draw, as Black has to give up the Rook, and the RP cannot be queened, the Black Bishop having no power on the White diagonal. Extremely subtle.


WHITE. Position by B. Horwitz. BLACK.

Position by B. Horwitz. BLACK

Without Black’s pawn White could only draw. The pawn being on the board, White wins as follows :— 1. Kt - B4, K-Kt sq ; 2. Kt (B4)-K3, K-R sq; 3. K - Kt4, K - Kt sq ; 4. K - R3, K-Rsq; 5. Kt - B4, K-Ktsq; 6. Kt (B4)-Q2, K-R sq ; 7. Kt — Kt3 ch, K — Kt sq ; 8. Kt - B3 mate.

The main idea being to checkmate with the Bishop, this is accomplished thus :—1. B - K4 ch, K - R4 ; 2. Q x R, Q x Q ; 3. K-B7, Q-B sq ch ; 4. KxQ, BxP; 5. K-B7, BxPj 6. B - Kt6 mate.