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CHESTER—CHEVALIER 761 South Australia, Queensland, West Australia, New site of the Pennsylvania Military College. Three railZealand, British India, Jamaica, Cape Town, Johannes- ways traverse it: the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and burg, Calcutta, and Malta. In the American press liberal Baltimore, the Baltimore and Ohio, and the Philadelphia space is devoted to chess, and the same is the case on the and Reading. The assessed valuation of real property in Continent of Europe, Germany leading. There are 1900, on a basis of about two-thirds of the full value, was chess publications in Havana, Peru, and even in China. $14,883,/73, the net debt $769,647, and the tax-rate Bibliography.—More important works only need be enumerated. There is a vast mass of minor publications, which space does not $19.50 per $1000. Population (1880), 14,997; (1890), permit to give. Vasquez. El Archedrez di’ Memoria, Havana, 20,226; (1900), 33,988, of whom 5074 were foreign-born 1893 ; La Odisea de Pablo Morphy, Havana, 1893.—Bauer’. and 4403 negroes. Schachlexikon, Leipzig, 1893.—Jean Dufresne. KleinesLehrbuch Chesterfield, a municipal borough (enlarged dcs Schachspiels, 6th ed., Leipzig, 1893.—E. Freeborough and 1892) and market town in the Chesterfield parliamentary Rev. C. E. Ranken. Chess Openings, Ancient and Modern. Arnelung. Baltische Schachblatter, &c., Berlin, 1893.—Bachmann. division of Derbyshire, England, 24 miles N. of Derby by Geistreiche Schachpartien (containing a number of brilliant games) rail. A gas and water board has been incorporated, and the Ansbach, 1893-99. H. E. Bird. Chess History and Reminis- gas-works reconstructed. A George Stephenson Memorial cences, London, 1893 ; The Steinitz-Lasker Match, 1894 ; Chess Hall has been erected, containing a free library, a lecture Novelties, 1895.—Max Lange. Paul Morphy, 3rd ed. — C. Bardeleben and J. Mieses. Lehrbuch dcs Schachspiels (very use- room, art and science class-rooms, the rooms of the Chesterful). —Jas. Mason. The Principles of Chess in Theory and Practice, field Institute, and a theatre. A large theatre was built 1894 ; The Art of Chess, 1895 ; Social Chess (Horace Cox), London. in 1895. Chesterfield Hospital has been enlarged, and a —Dr Tarrasch. Dreihundert Schachpartien, Leipzig, 1895. Dr public park purchased. There are slate and sandstone Eugen v. Schmidt. Systematische Anordnung von Schacherbffnungen (Veitand Co.), Leipzig, 1895.—Numa Preti. A BCdesEchecs quarries in the neighbourhood. Extended area, 1219 Pans 1895.—C. Salvioli. Teoria generate del giuoco degli acres; population (1881), 19,835; (1901), 27,185. Scacchi, Livorno, 1895.—W. Steinitz. Modern Chess Instructor Chester-le-Street, a town in the Chester-leNew York, 1895.—L. Hoffer. Chess (Routledge).—E. Freeborough. Select Chess End Games, London, 1895. Euclid. Street parliamentary division of Durham, England, 6 The Chess Ending King and Queen against King and Rook, London i miles N. of Durham city by rail. Two Roman altars 1895. —Tassho von Heydebrand und derinscriptions l>k$,.—Leitfaden with havedesbeen found. A church founded Uhachspiels. — Dr Lasker. Common Seme in Chess, London, towards the end of the 13th century, and containing 1896. Oscar. Cordel. Neuester Leitfaden des Schachspiels, Berinteresting memorials, has been restored. There are lin, 1896 ; and a vast number of other publications. Further, The London Tournament Book, 1883 ; Twelve Tourna- Congregational and Methodist chapels; also a mechanics’ ment Books of the Tournaments of the German Chess Associa- institute and a church institute; an infectious diseases tion Veit and Co., Leipzig; The Hastings Tournament Book, hospital has been opened. Confectionery is manufactured. London, 1896; The Vienna Tournament Book, by Halprin and Marco, 1900; The Nuremberg Tournament Book, by Dr Area of civil parish, 2900 acres; population (1881), 691l " Tarrasch ; The Book of the London Congress, by L. Hoffer (1891), 8623; (1901), 11,753. Longman, 1899; The Paris Tournament Book, Paris, 1900 by Chesterton, a parish and village in the Chesterton Rosenthal, &c. h’^ division of Cambridgeshire, England, the village being Chester, a city and county of itself, municipal county Ig miles N. from Cambridge station, on the north bank (1888) and parliamentary borough, episcopal city, seaport, of the Cam. It is the goal for boat-races from Camand county town of Cheshire, England, on the Dee, 179 bridge, and several picturesque boat-houses have been miles N.N. W. of London by rail. A station on the Great erected along the river by the University Boat Club. Central railway was opened in 1890, whence branch lines Boat-building and tile manufacture are local industries. have since been made to Hawarden and South Wales. In 1894 an urban district council was established. Area The parliamentary representation was in 1885 reduced to 2778 acres. Population (1881), 5706; (1901), 9583. one. ^ The churches include St Mary’s-without-the-Walls Chevalier, Michel (1806- 1879), French (1887) and the parish church of St Mary-on-the-Hill (1887). Among the schools are Blue Coat School (1700), political economist, was born at Limoges, 13th January the Diocesan Training College for schoolmasters, and the 1806. In his early manhood, while employed as an engineer, Queen’s School for girls (1878). Other buildings are the he became a convert to the theories of Saint Simon ; these Royal Theatre (1882), Grosvenor Museum and School of he ardently advocated in the Globe, the organ of the Saint Art (1886), Campbell Memorial Hall (1895). Handbridge Simonians, which he edited until his arrest in 1832 on a Park was opened in 1892. Extensive alterations of the charge of outraging public morality by its publication. castle are in progress. The navigation of the Dee has He was sentenced to a year’s imprisonment, but was been much improved. In 1898, 86 vessels of 7240 tons released in six months through the intervention of were registered at the port; entrances numbered 2194 of M. Thiers, who sent him on a special mission to the 167,923 tons; clearances 2092 of 170,232 tons. Imports United States to study the question of land and water of foreign and colonial produce for 1898, £29,205, against transport. In 1836 he published, in two volumes, the £49,576 in 1888. Exports of the produce and manu- letters he wrote from America to the Journal des Debats. factures of the United Kingdom in 1898 amounted to These attracted so much attention that he was sent in the the value of £16,058, against £1621 in 1888. The area same year on an economic mission to England, which of the municipal borough, according to the delimitation resulted in his publication (in 1838) of Les interets made in 1898, measures 2860 acres. Before then the materiels de la France. The success of this made his area of city and county borough was 2960 acres; popula- position secure, and in 1840 he was appointed professor of tion on the old area (1881), 36,794; (1901), 36,281. political economy in the College de France. He sat for Area of parliamentary borough, whose limits reach into a short time (1845-46) as a member of the Chamber of the ancient county of Flint, 3455 acres; population Deputies, but lost his seat owing to his enthusiastic adoption of the principles of free trade. Under Napoleon III. (1881), 40,972; (1891), 42,295; (1901), 46,204. he was restored to the position of which the revolution of Chester, a city of Delaware county, Pa., U.S.A., 1848 had temporarily deprived him. In 1850 he became situated in 39 54, N. lat. and 75° 21/ W. long., on Delaware a member of the Institute, and in the following year river. It is regularly laid out on a level site, with broad published an important work in favour of free trade, under streets, and has extensive cotton manufactures and a large ! the title of Examen du systeme commercial connu sous le shipbuilding industry, mainly of iron vessels. It is the nom de systeme protecteur. His chief public triumph was S. II. — 96