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BADALONA — BAER 71 . northwards, so that it cuts off all the mountainous area included schools. In 1900 the revenue and expenditure balanced within that bend from the rest of Badakshan. Its chief affluent is the Minjan, which Robertson found to be a considerable stream at £4,125,300. The contribution to the imperial exchequer where it approaches the Hindu Kush close under the Dorah. Like was fixed at £872,930 in 1900. The public debt, which the Kunduz, it probably drains the northern slopes of the Hindu has been incurred entirely for the construction of the railKush by deep lateral valleys, more or less parallel to the crest, reach- ways, amounted in 1900 to £16,668,400. ing westwards towards the Khawak pass. From the Oxus (1000 ft.) toFaizabad (4000 ft.) and Zebak (8500 ft.) the course of the Kokcha Baden, or Baden-Baden, a town and watering-place offers a high road across Badakshan ; between Zebak and Ishkashim, of the grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, in the Black at the Oxus bend, there is but an insignificant pass of 9500 ft. ; Forest, 23 miles S. by W. from Carlsruhe by rail. There and from Ishkashim by the Panja, through the Pamirs, is the continuation of what must once have been a much-traversed trade route are two chief bath establishments, the Frederick Baths connecting Afghan Turkestan with Kashgar and China. It is (Renaissance building, 1869-77) and the Empress Augusta undoubtedly one of the great continental high roads of Asia. Baths (Renaissance, 1891-92), the former used by men North of the Kokha, within the Oxus bend, is the mountainous only in summer, and by both sexes in winter, the latter district of Darwaz, of which the physiography belongs rather to the used by women only in summer, and closed in winter. Pamir type than to that at the Hindu Kush. A very remarkable meridional range extends for 100 miles north- Almost every conceivable variety of bath can be had in wards from the Hindu Kush (it is across this range that the route both. The number of visitors exceeds 60,000 annually. from Zebak to Ishkashim lies), which determines the great bend of Baden possesses a technical school. Population (1885) the Oxus river northwards from Ishkashim, and narrows the valley of that river into the formation of a trough as far as the next bend 12,779 ; (1895), 14,862. westwards at Kila Wamar. The western slopes of this range drain Baden, or Baden bei Wien, chief town of a governto the Oxus either north-westwards, by the Kokcha and the Ragh, or else they twist their streams into the Shiva, which runs due north ment-district, and principal thermal springs and summer across Darwaz. Here again we find the main routes which traverse resort in Lower Austria, situated in the Schwechat valley, the country following the rivers closely. The valleys are narrow, about 12 miles from Vienna. Population (1890), 11,263, but fertile and populous. The mountains are rugged and or with Wiekersdorf, 15,776; (1900), 12,447, Wiekersdifficult; but there is much of the world-famous beauty of scenery, dorf, 5287, all German and mostly Catholic (estimated to and of the almost phenomenal agricultural wealth of the valleys of Bokhara and Ferghana to be found in the as yet half - explored have 5 per cent. Jewish and 2 per cent. Protestant). It recesses of Badakshan. The people of the country are Tajak, has now numerous educational institutions, new bathing dominated by Afghans. There are no recent works on Badakshan and Darwaz which can establishments, fifteen in all, a town museum, new park be considered authoritative. The foregoing is compiled from un- and kurhaus, a summer theatre. There are about 20,000 published notes of the Russo-Afghan and Pamir boundary surveys visitors annually, including several members of the Austrian by the author. (t. H. H.*) imperial family. Badenweiler, a small village and watering-place Badalona, a town and railway station of Spain, in province and diocese of Barcelona, situated in a plain, of the grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, 28 miles N. by near the left bank of the river Besos. Woollen, cotton E. by rail from Basel, at the western edge of the Black goods, glass, biscuits, sugar, and brandy are manufactured. Forest. Its new parish (Evangelical) church (1897) is Ihe country around is fertile, and produces abundantly built at the foot of the 11th-century castle (destroyed by cereals, wine, oranges, and fruit of all kinds. Population, the French in 1688) which belonged to the margraves of Baden. The place is visited by 5000 people annually, 18,165. partly for its warm mineral springs (70°), partly for its Baden, a grand duchy of the German empire, with whey cure, partly for its equable climate and picturesque an area of 5821 square miles, and population (1885) surroundings. There are a kurhaus, built in 1853, and a 1,601,255, (1895) 1,725,464, of whom 847,281 were park of 15 acres (1825 and 1865); also a grand-ducal males and 878,183 females. The density in 1895 was castle, refitted in 1887-88. In 1784 well-preserved 296 inhabitants to the square mile; and of the total Roman baths were discovered here. The permanent population over 45 per cent, were urban (i.e., lived in population is about 600. places above 2000 inhabitants each), and nearly 55 per cent, rural. At the same date 1,057,075 confessed the Bad UI la, the capital of the province of Uva, Ceylon, Roman Catholic faith, 637,946 were Evangelical Protest- 54 miles S.E. of Kandy. It is the seat of a governants, and there were 25,903 Jews. Of the total area, ment agent and district judge, besides minor courts. It 57-2 per cent, is under cultivation and 37-5 per cent, was in Kandyan times the home of a prince who ruled under forests. Of the total number of farms 223,631, or Uva as a principality. Badulla stands 2222 feet above 94 7 per cent., were less than 25 acres, 12,411 were between sea-level; the average annual rainfall is 79| inches; the 25 and 250 acres, and only 117 exceeded 250 acres. The average temperature 73°. The population of the town crops most extensively cultivated are hay, potatoes, barley, in 1901 was about 5600; of the Badulla district, oats, spelt, rye, maize, wheat, and beetroot. In 1898 188,964. There is a botanic garden; and the town, being 42,400 acres were planted with the vine, and the yield was almost encircled by a river—the Badullaeya—and over5,316,500 gallons of wine, valued at £460,000. Tobacco shadowed by the ISTaminacooly Kande range of mountains was planted on 21,700 acres (17,860 acres in 1898), (highest peak 6680 feet), is very picturesquely situated. and the yield was 20,000 tons, valued at £822,000. In The railway terminus at Bandarawella is 18 miles from the same year the live stock consisted of 650,885 cattle, Badulla, but there is a prospect of a tramway connexion. 411,253 pigs, 81,821 sheep, and 71,515 horses. In 1897 Tea is cultivated by the planters, and rice, fruit, and the breweries produced 60,306,450 gallons of beer, and vegetables by the natives in the district. m 1898 the distilleries 945,560 gallons of pure alcohol. Baer, Karl Ernst von (1792-1876), German The total length of railways in 1898 was 1080 miles, of biologist founder of the science of comparative embryowhich 992 belonged to the state; and from them was logy, wasand born at Piep in Esthonia on the 29th February derived^ 1897) a revenue of £1,067,500. In 1897 there 1792. His father, a small landowner, sent him to school were 1/3,794 hands employed in the various industries. at Revel, which he left in his eighteenth year to study In addition to the two universities (Heidelberg and Freimedicine at Dorpat University. Burdach’s lectures suggested JUr S); and the polytechnic at Carlsruhe, there are over 220 research in the wider field of life-history, and as at that time technical, agricultural, and other special schools, 60 middle Germany offered quicker facilities for, and greater encourageschools (classical and modern), and over 1600 elementary ment to, scientific work, von Baer went to Wurzburg, where