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12 TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE 126; Muhammad Tughlak, his cruelties, revenue exactions, 124- 126; Firuz Shah Tughlak, his canals, 126; Timur's invasion (1398), 126 ; the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties, 127 ; Hindu, kingdoms of the south— Vijayanagar, 127, 128; the Muhammadan States in the Deccan, 128; the Bahmani dynasty, 128, 129; the five Mu- hammadan States of the Deccan (1489-1688), 129; downfall of Vijayanagar, 129, 130 ; independence of the Muhammadan Provinces, 130; weakness of the early Delhi empire, 130, 131 ; materials for reference, 131. CHAPTER X. The Mughal Dynasty (1526-1761) .... I3 2 - I 55 Babar's invasion of India and overthrow of the Lodi dynasty at Panipat (1526;, 132; Humayun's reign (1530-1556), I3 2 > l ll< his defeat by Sher Shah, the Afghan, 133 ; he flies to Persia, but regains India as the result of the second battle of Panipat (1556), 133; Akbar the Great (1556-1605), chronological summary of his reign, 133, 134; the regent Bairam, 134; Akbar's work in India, reduc- tion of Muhammadan States and the Rajput clans, 134-136 ; his policy of conciliation towards the Hindus, 135, 136; his conquests in Southern India, 136, 137; his religious faith, 137, 138; Akbar's organization of the Empire, 138, 139; his revenue survey of India, 139; his ministers, 140; Jahangir (1605-1627), his wars and con- quests, 140 ; the Empress Niir Jahan, 140, 141 ; Jahangir's personal character, 141, 142 ; Shah Jahan (1628-1658), his administration and wars, 142, 143; his great architectural works at Agra and Delhi, 143 ; his revenues, 143, 144 ; deposed by his rebellious son, Aurang- zeb, 144; Aurangzeb's reign (1658-1707), 144-150; chronological summary of his reign, 144, 145 ; he murders his brothers, 145, 146; his great campaign in Southern India, 146, 147; his war with the Marathas, and death, 147, 148 ; Mir Jumla's unsuccessful expedition to Assam, 148; Aurangzeb's bigoted policy and oppression of the Hindus, 148, 149; revenue of the empire, 149, 150; character of Aurangzeb, 150 ; decline of the Mughal power under the succeeding nominal Emperors, 150, 151 ; independence of the Deccan and of Oudh, 151 ; Maratha, Sikh, and Rajput revolts, 151 ; the invasions of Nadir Shah the Persian, and Ahmad Shah the Afghan, 151, 152 ; misery of the country, 152, 153 ; decline and downfall of the Empire, 1 S3 ; India conquered by the British, not from the Mughals, but from the Hindus, 154; chronological summary of principal events from the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, till the banishment of Bahadur Shah, the last Mughal Emperor, for complicity in the Mutiny of 1857, 154, 155 ; materials for reference, 155.