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THE FIVE M4RATHA HOUSES. 161 descended from a shepherd, and Sindhia from a slipper-bearer. The Marath&s under Holkar and Sindhia lay quiet for a time after their crushing disaster at Panfpat in 176 1. But within ten years of that fatal field they had established themselves through- out Malwa, and proceeded to invade the Rajput, Jat, and Rohilla Provinces, from the Punjab on the west to Oudh in the east (1761-1771). In 1765, the titular emperor, Shah Alam, had sunk into a British pensioner, after his defeat by Sir Hector Munro at Baxar in 1764. In 1771, the emperor gave himself over to the Marathds. Sindhia and Holkar nominally maintained him on his throne at Delhi, but held him a virtual prisoner till 1803-4, when they were overthrown by our second Maratha war. The dynasties of both Sindhia and Holkar have preserved to the present day their rule over the most fertile portion of Malwa. The Bhonslas of Nagpur, 1751-1853. — The third of the northern Maratha houses, namely the Bhonslas of Berar and the Central Provinces, occupied themselves with raids to the east. Operating from their base at Nagpur, they had (as we have seen) extorted in 1751 the ckatith, or 'quarter revenue' of Lower Bengal, together with the sovereignty of Orissa. The acquisition of Lower Bengal by the British (1756-1765) put a stop to their raids. In 1 803, a division of our army drove the Bhonsla Marathas out of Orissa. In 1817, their power was finally broken by our last Maratha war. Their headquarter territories, now forming the Central Provinces, were administered under the guidance of British Residents from 181 7 to 1853. On the death of the last Raghujf Bhonsla without a direct male heir, in 1853, the Nagpur Maratha territories (now known as the Central Provinces), lapsed to the British. The Gaekwars of Baroda. — The fourth of the northern Maratha houses, namely, Baroda, extended its power throughout Gujarat, on the north-western coast of Bombay, and the adjacent peninsula of Kathiawar. The scattered but wealthy dominions known as the territories of the Gaekwar were thus formed. Since our last Maratha war, in 18 17, Baroda has been ruled by the Gaekwars, with the help of an English Resident. In 1874, the reigning Gaekwar was tried by a High Commission, com- L