DECISIVE BATTLE OF BAXAR. 185 and threatened Patna, which the English had recovered. A more formidable danger appeared in the English camp, in the form of the first sepoy mutiny. It was quelled by Major (afterwards Sir Hector) Munro, who ordered twenty-four of the ringleaders to be blown from guns, an old Mughal punishment. In 1764, Major Munro won the decisive battle of Baxar, which laid Oudh at the feet of the conquerors, and brought the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam, as a suppliant to the English camp. The old de- posed Nawab of Bengal, Mfr Jafar, was brought forth from his retirement, and was again appointed Nawab in place of Mfr K&sim, who had risen against us. The English Council in Calcutta had thus twice found the profitable opportunity which they loved, of creating a new Nawab of Bengal, and of receiving the donations and large sums of money distributed to them by each of the Naw&bs on his accession. Olive's Second Governorship, 1765-1767. — But, in 1765, Clive (now Baron Clive of Plassey in the peerage of Ireland) arrived at Calcutta, as Governor of Bengal for the second time. Two landmarks stand out in his policy. First, he sought the substance, although not the name, of territorial power, under the fiction of a grant from the Mughal Emperor. Second, he de- sired to purify the Company's service, by prohibiting illicit gains, and guaranteeing a reasonable salary from honest sources. In neither respect were his plans carried out by his immediate successors. But our efforts at good government in India date from this second governorship of Clive in 1765, as our military supremacy had dated from his victory at Plassey in 1757. Grant of trie Diwani of Bengal, 1765. — Clive advanced rapidly up from Calcutta to Allahabad, and there settled in person the fate of nearly the northern half of India. Oudh was given back to the Nawab Wazfr, on condition of his paying half a million sterling towards the expenses of the war. The Pro- vinces of Allahabad and Kora, lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, were handed over to the Emperor Shah Alam, who in his turn granted to the English Company the diwani or fiscal administration of [Lower] Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, and also the territorial jurisdiction of the Northern Circars. A puppet Naw&b was still maintained at Murshidabad, who received an
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