198 THE FOUNDATION OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. as the champion of the Mughal Emperor in his hereditary- capital. Before the end of 1803, both Sindhia and the Bhonsla Raja of Nagpur sued for peace. Sindhia ceded all claims to the territory north of the Jumna, and left the blind old Emperor Shah Alam once more under British protection. The Bhonsla forfeited Orissa to the English, who had already occupied it with a flying column in 1803, and Berar to the Nizam, who gained fresh territory by every act of complaisance to the British Government. The freebooter Jaswant Rao Holkar alone remained in the field, supporting his troops by raids through Malwa and Rajputana. The concluding years of Wellesley's rule were occupied with a series of operations against Holkar, which brought little credit on the British name. The disastrous retreat of Colonel Monson through Central India (1804) recalled memories of the convention of Wargaum, and of the destruction of Colonel Baillie's force by Haidar Alf. The repulse of Lake in person at the siege of Bhartpur (Bhurtpore) is memorable as an instance of a British army in India having to turn back with its object unaccomplished (1805). Bhartpur was not finally taken till 1827. India after Lord Wellesley, 1805. — Lord Wellesley during his six years of office carried out almost every part of his territorial scheme. In Northern India, Lord Lake's campaigns brought the North-Western Provinces (the ancient Madhya- desa) under British rule, together with the custody of the puppet emperor. The new Districts were amalgamated with those previously acquired from the Nawab Wazir of Oudh into the ' Ceded and Conquered Provinces.' This arrangement of Northern India remained till the Sikh wars of 1845 and 1849 g ave us the Punjab. In South-Eastern India, we have seen that Lord Wellesley's conquests constituted the Madras Presidency almost as it exists at the present date. In South- western India, the Peshwa was reduced to a vassal of the Company. But the territories now under the Governor of Bombay were not finally built up into their existing form until the last Maratha war in 181 8.
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