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THE LAST MARATHA WAR, 1817. 203 India. In bands, sometimes of a few hundreds, sometimes of many thousands, they rode out on their forays as far as the opposite coasts of Madras and of Bombay. The most powerful of the Pindarf captains, Amir Khan, had an organized army of many regiments, and several batteries of cannon. Two other leaders, known as Chitu and Karfm, at one time paid a ransom to Sindhia of £100,000. To suppress the Pind&rf hordes, who were supported by the sympathy, more or less open, of all the Mardthd Chiefs, Lord Hastings (181 7) collected the strongest British army which had been seen in India, numbering 120,000 men. One-half operated from the north, the other half from the south. Sindhia was overawed, and remained quiet. Amfr Khan disbanded his army, on condition of being guaranteed the possession of what is now the Principality of Tonk. The remaining bodies of Pindarfs were attacked in their homes, surrounded, and cut to pieces. Karfm threw himself upon the mercy of the conquerors. Chftu fled to the jungles, and was killed by a tiger. Last Maratha War, 1817-1818. — In the same year (181 7), and almost in the same month (November), as that in which the Pindarfs were crushed, the three great Maratha powers at Poona, Nagpur, and Indore rose separately against the British. The Peshwa B&jf Rio had long been chafing under the terms imposed by the treaty of Bassein (1802). A new treaty of Poona, in June 181 7, now freed the Gaekwar from his control, ceded fresh districts to the British for the pay of the subsidiary force, and submitted all future disputes to the decision of our Govern- ment. The Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, then our Resident at his court, foresaw a storm, and withdrew to Kirki, whither he had ordered up a European regiment. The Residency was burnt down by the Marathas, and the Peshwa attacked Kirki with his whole army. The attack was bravely repulsed, and the Peshwa immediately fled from his capital. Almost the same plot was enacted at Nagpur, where the honour of the British name was saved by the sepoys, who defended the hill of Sftabaldi against enormous odds. The Marathd army of Holkar was de- feated in the following month at the pitched battle of Mehidpur. Results of last Maratha "War. — All open resistance was