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several works, chiefly sacred music, in Rome, and a symphony performed in Munich. After his return to Paris in 1823 he brought out three operas, the failure of which drove him to adopt his father's trade. 'La Marquise de Brinvilliers,' composed in 1832 in conjunction with Auber, Harold, and Carafa, was however better received. Batton's failure as a dramatic composer may in great part be attributed to the poverty of his libretti.

[ M. C. C. ]

BATTUTA (Ital. beat, or measure). 'A battuta,' like 'a tempo,' means a return to the strict beat. Beethoven uses the word in the Scherzo of the Choral Symphony—'Ritmo di tre battute,' 'Ritmo di quattro battute,' to signify that the rhythm in those places goes in groups of three bars or four bars respectively. In the Presto of his E flat Quartett (Op. 74), where the time changes to 'Più presto, quasi prestissimo,' he adds the direction 'Si ha s'immaginar la battuta di 6-8'—the movement being written in 3-4.

BAULDUIN, or BAUDOUIN, Noel, a native of the Netherlands, contemporary with Josquin des Prés, and from 1513 to 1518 chapel-master of the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp, where he died in 1529. Two of his motets were printed by Petrucci of Fossombrone in 1519, which suggests that he visited Italy, and proves in any case that his fame had reached that country during his lifetime. The rest of his works, many of which are preserved in the Papal Chapel, are included in collections published some time after his death.

BAUMGARTEN, C. F., a native of Germany, and pupil of the famous organist J. P. Kunzen; came early to London and never left it; was organist at the Lutheran Chapel in the Savoy, and leader of the band of the English opera, Covent Garden. He was also composer and leader of the Duke of Cumberland s private band, which contained Blake, Waterhouse, Shield, Parke, and the elder Cramer. Baumgarten wrote much for the 'Professional Concerts' of 1783 and later, various operas and pantomimes—amongst others, Blue Beard, 1792. As an organist he had great skill in modulation and a thorough knowledge of his instrument, but as a violin-player, both in concerted music and as a leader, he was languid and wanting in energy—'a sleepy orchestra,' says Haydn in his diary. His theoretical knowledge was acknowledged by Haydn and Gyrowetz. 'He was the man to mix learning with effect, and therefore to write captivations that are felt by all' ('The World,' 1787). When he made Haydn's acquaintance in 1792 he had almost forgotten his mother tongue. In 1794 he lost his position at Covent Garden, and was succeeded by Mountain ('The Oracle,' Sept. 19). After this nothing is known of him. Baumgarten was a man of much ability and culture; his pupils were numerous and distinguished. He wrote an admirable treatise on music, and was a keen student of astronomy, mathematics, and history; but he does not seem to have possessed the art of making use of his advantages, and was quickly forgotten. A song of his, 'Her image ever rose to view,' from 'Netley Abbey,' is preserved in Ayrton's 'Musical Library.'

[ C. F. P. ]

BAYADERES, dancing girls attached to the Hindoo temples. The nature of their profession may be inferred from Goethe's Ballad 'Der Gott und die Bajadere,' which forms the groundwork of Catel's opera 'Les Bayadères,'[1] and of Auber's opera-ballet 'Le Dieu et la Bayadère.' They are a prominent feature in Spohr's 'Jessonda.'

BAYLY, Rev. Anselm, D.C.L, son of Anselm Bayly of Haresfield, Gloucestershire, was born in the year 1719. He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, Nov. 4, 1740. On Jan. 22, 1741, he was appointed lay vicar of Westminster Abbey, and on the 29th of the same month was admitted a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, both places being vacant by the death of John Church. On March 13, 1744, having resigned his place as gentleman, he was admitted priest of the Chapel Royal. He graduated as B.C.L. June 12, 1749, and D.C.L. July 10, 1764. In the latter year, on the death of the Rev. Dr. Fifield Allen, Bayly was appointed his successor as sub-dean of the Chapel Royal. He died in 1792. He was author of 'A Practical Treatise on Singing and Playing,' 1771, and 'The Alliance of Musick, Poetry, and Oratory,' 1789, and of several theological and grammatical works. In 1769 he edited a collection of the words of Anthems, to which he contributed an interesting preface on cathedral music.

[ W. H. H. ]

BAZZINI, Antonio, eminent violinist, was born in 1818 at Brescia. From 1840 he has played with great success in most of the principal towns of Italy, Germany, France, and Belgium. As a performer he belongs to the school of Paganini, his playing, although not free from mannerism and a certain sentimentality, being distinguished by a most brilliant technique of the left hand and the bow, and by great vivacity of style. As a composer for his instrument Bazzini shews more earnest artistic feeling than most modern Italians. Having published in earlier years a number of operatic fantasias, many pièces de salon, a concertino and and an allegro de concert, he has of late come forward with works for the chamber and church, which have met with great success at Milan and other Italian places. Bazzini is now (1876) Professor of Composition at the Milan Conservatorio. [App. p.533 adds "in Jan. 1867 his opera 'Turandot' (words by Gazzoletti) was given at Milan. He has written two sacred cantatas, 'Senacheribbo' and 'La Resurrezione del Cristo,' besides settings of several Psalms; symphonic overtures to Alfieri's 'Saul' (Crystal Palace, Feb. 17, 1877) and to 'King Lear' (Do. Feb. 21, 1880), and, in chamber music, three string-quartets and a quintet. He was appointed director of the Milan Conservatorio in 1880."]

[ P. D. ]

BEALE, John, a pianist, born in London about 1796, was a pupil of John Baptist Cramer. In 1820 he was elected a member of the Philharmonic Society, and in 1821 was an active promoter of a concert given to celebrate the birthday of Mozart. On the establishment of the Royal Academy of Music he was

  1. For an amusing anecdote connected with this opera and with the dislike of Napoleon I to loud music see Clement, 'Dictionnaire Lyrique,' p. 376.