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benefit nights, he exhibited the versatility of his talents by performing in succession on the violin, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, violoncello, double bass, and pianoforte. About 1823 he undertook, alternately with his duty as tenor singer, the duty of leader of the band. [App. p.597 adds that "in 1821 he was called 'director of the music at Drury Lane Theatre' (Quarterly Musical Magazine), and that from 1828 to 1830 he was one of the musical managers of Vauxhall Gardens."] Some years later he was engaged, at Drury Lane and Covent Garden, as director of the music and conductor. He was a member of the Philharmonic Society, and occasionally led the band or conducted the concerts. In 1846 he succeeded John Loder as leader at the Concert of Antient Music. For several years he held the post of principal tenor singer at the chapel of the Bavarian Embassy. [App. p.597 "He relinquished his post at the Bavarian Embassy in 1838."] He died at his house in Great Portland Street, Feb. 26, 1848, and was buried at Kensal Green cemetery. Cooke's compositions were numerous and varied. He wrote much for the theatre, but his music of that description has mostly passed out of memory. As a glee composer he was more successful, and several of his compositions of that class obtained prizes from the Catch and Glee Clubs. As a singing-master he had a deserved reputation, and several of his pupils achieved distinction; amongst them Miss M. Tree, Mrs. Austin, Miss Povey, Miss Rainforth, the Misses A. and M. Williams, and Mr. Sims Reeves. He wrote a treatise on singing, which was much esteemed. Cooke's principal dramatic pieces were 'Frederick the Great,' 1814; 'The King's Proxy,' 1815; 'The Count of Anjou,' 1816; 'A Tale of Other Times' (with Bochsa), 1822; 'The Wager, or, The Midnight Hour,' 1825; 'Oberon, or, The Charmed Horn,' 1826; 'Malvina,' 1826; 'The Boy of Santillane,' 1827; 'The Brigand,' 1829, one song in which, 'Gentle Zitella,' attained great popularity; 'Peter the Great,' 1829; 'The Dragon's Gift,' 1830; 'The Ice Witch,' 1831; 'Hyder Ali,' 1831; 'St. Patrick's Eve,' 1832; 'King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table,' 1835; [App. p.597 adds "'Abu Hassan' (adapted from Weber), April, 1825; 'The White Lady' (from Boieldieu), Oct. 1826; 'Isidore de Merida' (from Storace), 1828; 'Acis and Galatea,' 1842; 'The Follies of a Night,' 1845. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)"] additional songs for 'A Midsummer Night's Dream,' 1840. He also adapted several foreign operas to the English stage, after a fashion in vogue in his time, i. e. omitting much that the composer wrote, and supplying its place by compositions of his own. He published 'Six Glees for 3 and 4 voices' in 1844, besides many singly. Among his glees which gained prizes were 'Hail! bounteous Nature,' 1829; 'Come, spirits of air,' 1830; 'Let us drain the nectared bowl,' 1830; 'Thou beauteous spark of heavenly birth,' 1832; 'O fair are thy flowerets,' 1836: he likewise obtained a prize for his catch, 'Let's have a catch and not a glee,' 1832. Cooke had considerable abilities as a wit and humourist. His eldest son, Henry Angelo Michael (commonly known as Grattan) Cooke, was educated in the Royal Academy of Music, and for many years held the post of principal oboe in all the best orchestras, and was subsequently band-master of the second regiment of Life Guards.

[ W. H. H. ]

COOMBE, William Francis, son of a singing-master at Plymouth, was born there in 1786. Commencing his musical studies under his father, he subsequently prosecuted them under Churchill, and finally under Jackson of Exeter. At fourteen years of age he obtained the appointment of organist of Chard, which he in a few years resigned for that of Totnes, which he in turn gave up, after holding it for nine years, for the like place at Chelmsford. He published several pianoforte pieces of his composition.

[ W. H. H. ]

COOMBS, James Morris, was born at Salisbury in 1769. He was admitted a chorister of the cathedral under Dr. Stephens and Parry. In 1789 he was appointed organist at Chippenham, and retained that place until his death in 1820. His published works consist of a Te Deum and Jubilate, songs, glees, a set of canzonets, and a selection of psalm tunes.

[ W. H. H. ]

COOPER, George, son of the assistant organist to St. Paul's; born in Lambeth July 7, 1820. His quickness of ear, readiness of execution, and taste for good music, developed themselves very early, and his road to the organ was smoothed by an old harpsichord with pedals and two rows of keys, on which the lad practised at all available times. When 11 years old he often took the service at St. Paul's for his father, and at the Festivals of the Sons of the Clergy it was Attwood's delight (then chief organist) to make him extemporise. On one such occasion Mendelssohn is said to have remarked and praised him. At 13½ he was made organist of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf. On Attwood's death he became assistant organist of St. Paul's, vice his father resigned; in 1836 organist of St. Ann and St. Agnes; and on the death of his father, in 1843, succeeded him at St. Sepulchre's, and became singing-master and organist to Christ's Hospital as well. On the death of Sir George Smart [App. p.597 "J. B. Sale (1856)"] he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal. He died Oct. 2, 1876, much regretted.

Cooper did much to familiarise his hearers with the works of Bach and other great composers, which he played in a noble style. His 'Organ Arrangements,' 'Organist's Manual,' and 'Organist's Assistant,' are well known, and so is his 'Introduction to the Organ,' long the only work of its kind in England. These were his only publications of any moment. He had a strong taste for natural science, and divided his time between the organ, his ferns, and photography.

COPERARIO, John, was an Englishman named Cooper, who, having Italianised his name during a sojourn in Italy, continued the use of it after his return to England. He was a composer for and performer on the lute and viol da gamba, and the musical instructor of the children of James I. In 1606 he published 'Funeral Teares for the Death of the Right Honorable the Earle of Devonshire: figured in seaven songes, whereof sixe are so set forth that the wordes may be exprest by a treble voice alone to the Lute and Base Violl, or else that the meane part may be added, if any shall affect more fulnesse of parts. The seaventh is made in forme of a Dialogue and can not be sung without two voyces.'