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cluded Madame Grisi and Signor Mario, who with Signor Costa and nearly all the members of his orchestra had suddenly left Her Majesty's Theatre for the new enterprise, in which they were joined by Mme. Persiani, Signor Tamburini, Signor Ronconi, and Mlle. Alboni, who, on the opening night—April 6, 47—sang (as Arsace in 'Semiramide') for the first time on this side of the Alps. The management of the Royal Italian Opera, as the new musical theatre was called, passed after a short time into the hands of Mr. Delafield, who was aided by Mr. Gye; and since Mr. Delafield's bankruptcy the establishment has been carried on solely by Mr. Gye (1851), who, when the theatre was burned down in 1856, rebuilt it at his own expense from the design of Mr. Edward Barry, R.A. The celebrated prima donna, Adelina Patti, made her début at the Royal Italian Opera in 1862 [App. p.601 "1861"], when she sang for the first time on the boards of a European theatre. Mlle. Lucca and Mlle. Albani, Signori Tamberlik and Graziani, may be mentioned among other artists of European fame who have appeared at the Royal Italian Opera. For some dozen years (between 1840 and 1855) M. Jullien directed promenade concerts at this theatre; and from time to time, during the winter months, performances of English opera have been given at Covent Garden. Thus Balfe's 'Rose of Castille,' 'Satanella,' and 'Armourer of Nantes,' Wallace's 'Lurline,' and Benedict's 'Lily of Killarney,' were produced here under the management of Miss Louisa Pyne and Mr. William Harrison.

[ H. S. E. ]

COWEN, Frederic Hymen, born Jan. 29, 1852, at Kingston, Jamaica, exhibited early an extraordinary love of music, was brought to England by his parents when four years old, and placed under the tuition of Sir J. Benedict and Sir J. Goss, whose pupil he remained until the winter of 1865. He then studied at the conservatoires of Leipzig and Berlin, returning to London in 1868. Amongst his early works are an operetta entitled 'Garibaldi,' a fantasie-sonata, a trio, quartet, pianoforte concerto, and a symphony in C minor. He has also written a cantata, 'The Rose Maiden' (1870); the incidental music to Schiller's 'Maid of Orleans' (1871); a festival overture for Norwich (1872); 'The Corsair,' a cantata composed for the Birmingham Festival, 1876, and a symphony in F major. On Nov. 22, 1876, his opera of 'Pauline' was brought out by the Carl Rosa company at the Lyceum Theatre with great success. Mr. Cowen is also the composer of many popular songs. [App. p.601 adds "the oratorio of 'St. Ursula' (Norwich, 1881), and the cantata 'The Sleeping Beauty' (Birmingham, 1885); an orchestral suite, 'The Language of Flowers,' and a 'Scandinavian' symphony (No. 3). A 'Welsh' symphony (No. 4) was played at the Philharmonic in 1884, and a fifth, in F, written for the Cambridge University Musical Society, was performed there, and subsequently at a Richter concert, in 1887. An oratorio entitled 'Ruth,' the words by Joseph Bennett, was given at the Worcester Festival of the same year. In 1888 he was appointed conductor of the Philharmonic Society, and was given the post of musical director of the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition."]

[ M. ]

COX AND BOX, a triumviretta. A musical farce, altered from Madison Morton's 'Box and Cox' by F. C. Burnand, music by A. Sullivan. Produced at the Adelphi, May 11, 1867.

CRAMER, a family of German musicians, of whom the head was Jacob Cramer, born at Sachau in Silesia 1705, flutist in the then celebrated band at Mannheim, where he died in 1770. Of his sons, Johann, born at Mannheim 1743, was drummer in the court band at Munich, and Wilhelm, born at Mannheim 1745, made himself a considerable reputation as a violinist and leader. He was a pupil of Johann Stamitz, sen., and of Cannabich, and when still very young gave evidence of unusually brilliant abilities. His contemporaries declared that his playing united the facility of Lolli with the expression of Franz Benda. At 16 he was admitted into the band at Mannheim, but left it after his father's death for London, where he was well received in 1772, and soon obtained a creditable position. His first appearance was March 22, 1773. He was appointed head of the king's band, and leader at the Opera and Pantheon, the Antient Concerts, and the Professional Concerts. He was famous as the leader of the Handel Festivals at Westminster Abbey in 1784 and 87. His last appearance was at the Gloucester Festival in 1799, and he died in London Oct. 5 of that or the next year [App. p.601 deletes "or the next"]. As a solo player he was for a time considered to be without a rival in England till superseded by Salomon and Viotti. He published eight concertos (for the most part in Paris), several solos and trios, but they are of no value. Of his sons are known, Franz, born 1772, a violinist of repute in London, died 1848 [App. p.601 "Franz or François Cramer was appointed Master of the King's music on the death of Christian Kramer in 1834"]; Carl, born 1780, a good pianist and valued teacher; and finally, Johann Baptist [App. p.601 "the eldest son"], the best known of the whole family, an eminent pianist, and one of the principal founders of the modern pianoforte school, born at Mannheim Feb. 24, 1771. He was but a year old when his father settled in London, and it was there that he lived and worked for the greatest part of his life. To his father's instruction on the violin and in the elements of the theory of music, pianoforte playing was added, and for this the boy manifested the most decided preference and unmistakable talent. [App. p.601 "[His] first appearance took place in 1781."] His teachers were a certain Benser, Schroeter, and above all, Muzio Clementi, under whom he studied for two years till Clementi's departure in 1774 [App. p.601 "1784"]. His mind and taste were formed on Handel, Bach, Scarlatti, Haydn, and Mozart, and by this means he obtained that musical depth and solidity so conspicuous in his numerous works. Cramer was in the main self-educated in theory and composition. He had, it is true, a course of lessons in thoroughbass from C. F. Abel in 1785, but his knowledge was chiefly acquired through his own study of Kirnberger and Marpurg. From 1788 Cramer undertook professional tours on the continent, and in the intervals lived in London, enjoying a world-wide reputation as pianist and teacher. In 1828 he established the firm of J. B. Cramer and Co., music-publishers, which, besides bringing out his own compositions, was specially employed in publishing the older classical works. After a residence of some years in Paris he returned in 1845 to London, and passed the rest of his life in retirement. He lived to play a duet with Liszt in London, and died April 16, 1858. There are references to him in Beethoven's letters of June 1, 1815, and March 5, 1818, and frequent notices in Moscheles's Life. Ries has left on record (Notizen, p. 99), that John