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Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/55

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{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f << \cadenzaOn \relative c'' { c4\turn^\markup { \smaller \italic Doppelschlag. } \bar "||" c\prall^\markup { \smaller \italic Mordent. } \bar "||" \appoggiatura { a16[^\markup { \smaller \italic Anschlag. } c] } b4 \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \relative c'' { d32*2/3([ c b c8.)] c64[ b c32 ~ c8.] a32([ c b8.)] } } >> }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f << \cadenzaOn \relative g' { g4^\markup { \smaller \italic Schleifer. } \bar "|" c4-\tweak #'X-offset #-0.5 -\tweak #'Y-offset #-0.5 -\prall \bar "||" \grace { c16[^\markup { \smaller \italic Schneller. } d] } c4 \bar "||" <c g e>\arpeggio^\markup { \smaller \italic Brechung. } \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \relative g' { g4 a32([ b c8.)] c32([ d c8.)] \set tieWaitForNote =##t e,32[ ~ g ~ <c g e>8.] } } >> }

In addition to these, Marpurg treats of the Nachschlag (Ex. 2), which Emanuel Bach does not recognise, or at least calls 'ugly, although extraordinarily in fashion,' but which is largely employed by modern composers.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/4 \tempo "2." << \relative c'' { c4 c | \afterGrace c4(^\markup { \smaller \italic Nachschlag. } d16) g,4 | \afterGrace d'4( c16) g'4 \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \relative c'' { c8. d16 c4 | c8. d16 g,4 | d'8. c16 g'4 } } >> }

The principal agrémens of French music were the Appogiature, Trille, and Accent, which resembled respectively the Vorschlag, Triller and Nachschlag described above, and in addition the Mordant—which appears to have differed from the Mordent of German music, and to have been a kind of interrupted trill,—the Coulé, Port de voix,[1] Port de voix jetté, and the Cadence pleine ou brisée[2] (Ex. 3).

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "3." << \cadenzaOn \relative c'' { c8.[\prall b16]^\markup { \smaller \italic Mordant. } a8.[\prall g16] \bar "||" \afterGrace e'2(^\markup { \smaller \italic Coulé } d8) c2 \bar "||" d4^\markup { \smaller \italic "Port de voix." } \grace d8 e2 \bar "||" c4.^\markup { \smaller \italic "Port de voix jetté." } d4 \appoggiatura  d8 e2 \bar "||" e2^\markup { \smaller \italic "Cadence pleine." } d4.\trill c8 \bar "|" c1 \bar "||" c4^\markup { \smaller \italic "Cadence brisée." } c4.\trill b8 \bar "|" c1 \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \relative c'' { c32[ d c d c16. b32] a32[ b a b a16. g32] e4.( d8 c2) d4 d8( e16 d e4) c4. d8 d4. e16[ d e] e2 d16[ e d e d e d] c c1 c4 d16[ c d c d c] b8 c1 } } >> }

The agrémens or graces peculiar to old English music differed considerably from the above, and have now become obsolete. They are described in an instruction-book for the violin, called the Division Violist, by Christopher Simpson, published in 1659, and are divided into two classes, the 'smooth and shaked graces.' The smooth graces are only adapted to stringed instruments, as they are to be executed by sliding the finger along the string; they include the Plain-beat or Rise, the Backfall, the Double Backfall, the Elevation, the Cadent, and the Springer, which 'concludes the Sound of a Note more acute, by clapping down another Finger just at the expiring of it.' The effect of this other finger upon the violin would be to raise the pitch of the last note but one (the upper of the two written notes) so that the Springer would resemble the French Accent. The 'shaked graces' are the Shaked Beat, Backfall, Elevation, and Cadent, which are similar to the plain graces with the addition of a shake, and lastly the Double Relish, of which no explanation in words is attempted, but an example in notes given as below (Ex. 4).

  1. The term 'Port de voix,' which ought property to signify the carrying of the voice with extreme smoothness from one note to another (Ital. 'portamento dl voce'), has been very generally applied to the appoggiatura.
  2. The Doppelschlag (Eng. 'Turn') was often called Cadence by the French writers of the time of Couperin (1700); and indeed Sebastian Bach uses the word in his 'Clavier-Büchlein' (1720).