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Colla, who composed for her most of the music she sang. She sang at the Pantheon Concerts for some years, from 1775, receiving a salary at one time of £100 a night for singing two songs, a price which was then simply enormous. She died at Parma, May 18, 1783.

[ J. M. ]

AGUS, Henri, born in 1749, died 1798; composer and professor of solfeggio in the Conservatoire of Paris (1795). His works, which display more learning than genius, consist of trios for strings, two compositions for violoncello, published in London, where he lived for some time, and six duos concertants for two violins, published by Barbieri (Paris) as the op. 37 of Boccherini.

AHLE, Johann Rodolph, church composer, born at Mühlhausen in Thuringia, Dec. 24, 1625; educated at Göttingen and Erfurt. In 1644 he became organist at Erfurt, but soon after settled at his native place, where in 1655 he was appointed member of the senate and afterwards burgomaster. He died in full possession of his powers July 8, 1673. His published compositions include 'Compendium pro tenellis' (1648), a treatise on singing which went through three editions; 'Geistlichen Dialogen,' 'Symphonien, Paduanen, und Balleten'; 'Thuringische Lustgarten,' a collection of church music; 400 'geistlichen Arien,' 'geistlichen Concerte,' and 'Andachten' on all the Sundays and Festivals, etc., etc. He cultivated the simple style of the choral, avoiding polyphonic counterpoint. His tunes were for long very popular, and are still sung in the Protestant churches of Thuringia—amongst others that known as 'Liebster Jesu wir sind hier.' Ahle left a son, Johann Georg, born 1650, who succeeded to his father's musical honours, and was made poet laureate by the Emperor Leopold I. He died Dec. 2, 1706. His hymn tunes were once popular, but are not now in use.

[ F. G. ]

AHLSTROEM, A. J. R, born about 1762; a Swedish composer, organist at the church of St. James, Stockholm, and court accompanyist; composed sonatas for pianoforte (Stockholm, 1783 and 1786), cantatas, and songs, and edited with Boman 'Walda svenska Folkdansar och Folkledar,' a collection of Swedish popular airs, some of which have been sung by Mme. Lind-Goldschmidt. He was also editor for two years of a Swedish musical periodical 'Musikaliskt Tidsfördrif.'

[ M. C. C. ]

AIBLINGER, Johann Caspar, born at Wasserburg in Bavaria, Feb. 23, 1779. His compositions are much esteemed, and performed in the Catholic churches of South Germany. In 1803 he went to Italy, and studied eight years at Vicenza, after which he settled at Venice, where in conjunction with the Abbe Gregorio Trentino he founded the 'Odeon' Institution for the practice of classical works. In 1826 he was recalled to his native country by the king, and appointed kapellmeister of his court music. In 1833 however he returned to Italy, and resided at Bergamo, occupying himself in the collection of ancient classical music, which is now in the Staatsbibliothek at Munich. His whole efforts to the end of his life were directed to the performance of classical vocal music in the All Saints' church at Munich, erected in 1826. His single attempt at dramatic composition was an opera of 'Rodrigo a Chimene,' which was not successful. The bravura airs for Mme. Schechner and for Pellegrini were much liked, but the piece shewed no depth of invention. In church music however he was remarkably happy: his compositions in this department are in the free style of his time, written with great skill, and full of religious feeling, tuneful, agreeable, and easy melody, and exactly suited to small church choirs. They consist of masses, some requiems, graduals, litanies, and psalms, with accompaniments for orchestra and organ, published at Munich, Augsburg, and Paris (Schott). Aiblinger died May 6, 1867.

[ C. F. P. ]

AICHINGER, Gregor. Born about 1565; took holy orders, and entered the service of Freiherr Jacob Fugger at Augsburg as organist. In 1599 he paid a visit of two years to Rome to perfect himself in music. The date of his death is unknown, but it is supposed that he was alive at the time of the publication of one of his works, Dec. 5, 1613. In the preface to his 'Sacrae Cantiones' (Venice, 1590), he praises the music of Gabrieli; and his works also betray the influence of the Venetian school. They are among the best German music of that time, bearing marks of real genius; and are superior to those of his contemporary, the learned Gallus, or Handl. Amongst the most remarkable are a 'Ubi est frater,' and 'Assumpta est Maria,' both for three voices; an 'Adoramus' for four; and an 'Intonuit de coslo' for six voices, the last printed in the Florilegium Portense. A Litany, a Stabat Mater, and various motetts of his are printed in Proske's 'Musica divina.'

[ F. G. ]

AIMON, Pamphile Leopold François, violoncellist and composer, born at L'Isle, near Avignon, 1779; conducted the orchestra of the theatre in Marseilles when only seventeen, that of the Gymnase Dramatique in Paris 1821, and of the Théâtre Français, on the retirement of Baudron, 1822. Of his seven operas only two were performed, the 'Jeux Floraux' (1818), and 'Michel et Christine' (1821), the last with great success. He also composed numerous string quartetts, trios, and duos (Paris and Lyons), and was the author of 'Connaissances preliminaires de L'Harmonie,' and other treatises.

[ M. C. C. ]

AIR (Ital. aria; Fr. air; Germ. Arie, from the Latin aer, the lower atmosphere; or œra, a given number, an epoch, or period of time). In a general sense air, from the element whose vibration is the cause of music, has come to mean that particular kind of music which is independent of harmony. In common parlance air is rhythmical melody—any melody or kind of melody of which the feet are of the same duration, and the phrases bear some recognisable