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him to write the music to be performed at the reception of Henry III. King of France; for which occasion he composed several pieces, one being for 12 voices in 2 choirs, 'Ecco Vinegia bella,' printed in the 'Gemma Musicalis' (Venice, Gardano, 1588). Though much addicted to counterpoint, his style is elevated and dignified. His finest work is 'Psalmi Davidici poenitentiales, tum omnis generis instrumentorum, tum ad vocis modulationum accomodati, sex vocum' (Venice 1583). Among his numerous compositions may be mentioned—'Sacrae cantiones quinque vocum, liber primus' (1565); 'Missarum sex vocum, liber primus' (1570); 'Madrigali a 5 voci, liber primus,' containing 24 adrigals and 6 canzoni (1572); 'Libro secondo di Madrigali a 5 e 6 voci, con un dialogo da 8' (1572); 'Canzoni alla francese per l'organo' (1571); and 'Canti concerti a 6, 7, 8, 10, e 16 voci' (1587). In the last are some pieces by his nephew. His organ music was printed with his nephew's in 3 vols. of Ricercari. Andrea seems to have strongly felt the necessity of executing vocal music by instruments. He also composed the first 'real fugues,' a species of composition for which his nephew showed great facility. Proske's 'Musica divina' contains a missa brevis and no fewer than 10 motets of his, all for 4 voices.

2. Giovanni, born in Venice 1557, pupil of his uncle Andrea, by 1575 already well known as a composer, succeeded Claudio Merulo as first organist of St. Mark's, Jan. 1, 1585. He died probably in 1612, as Gianpaolo Savii succeeded him on August 12 of that year, but his monument in San Stefano gives Aug. 12, 1613, as the date of his death. Although he seems never to have left Venice he was well known throughout the civilised world. The works of his pupils, Heinrich Schütz, Alois Grani, and Michael Praetorius, testify to the deep respect they all entertained for him. His contrapuntal facility was extraordinary; his 'Sacrae symphoniae' (1597) contains a piece for 3 choirs, each of different composition. (This or a similar noble work is printed by Mr. Hullah in his 'Vocal scores.') The first part of the Symphoniae is dedicated to Count George Fugger, in acknowledgment of his having invited Gabrieli to his wedding. The necessity for the orchestra is still more marked in Giovanni than in his uncle Andrea; his modulations are often so bold and difficult that we can scarcely believe they were ever intended for voices. In this respect he may be called the father of the chromatic style. For particulars of his times and contemporaries see Winterfeld's 'Johann Gabrieli und seine Zeit,' 2 vols. of text and 1 vol. of examples, containing 23 pieces for voices (from 4 to 16), one for organ, and one for quartet. Others will be found in Bodenschatz; Rochlitz; in Musica sacra (Schlesinger 1834), etc. Rochlitz's Collection (Schott) contains an In excelsis of his for Soprano and Tenor solo, and chorus (à 4), with violins, 3 horns, and 2 trombones; also a Benedictus for 3 choirs.

3. Domenico, dramatic composer and violon-cellist, known as 'il Menghino del violoncello,' born at Bologna 1640; first in the band of San Petronio, then in the service of Cardinal Pamfili. In 1676 he became a member, and in 1683 President, of the Società Filarmonica in Bologna. He appears to have died before 1691. Of his operas, produced in Bologna, Padua, and Venice, 'Cleobulo' was the most successful. His instrumental compositions 'Balletti, gighe, correnti, sarabande, a due violini e violoncello con basso continuo,' op. 1 (Bologna 1703), are interesting.

[ F. G. ]

GABRIELLE, CHARMANTE, that is, Gabrielle d'Estrées, mistress of Henri IV. The reign of Louis XVIII. revived an artless little romance, which, like the song 'Vive Henri IV.' [see Henri], recalled pleasant memories of the Béarnais. 'Charmante Gabrielle' was not only sung far and wide at that loyal epoch, but the authorship of both words and music was attributed to the gallant king, and the mistake is still often repeated. True Henri suggested the song to one of the poets of his court, but we have his own authority for the fact that he did not himself write the stanzas. The letter in which the king sent the song to Gabrielle is in the 'Recueil des Lettres missives' of Berger de Xivrey (iv. 998, 9), and contains these words:— 'Ces vers vous représenteront mieulx ma condition et plus agréablement que ne feroit la prose. Je les ay dictez, non arrangez.' The only date on the letter is May 21, but it was written in 1597 from Paris, where Henri was collecting money for his expedition to Amiens, and making preparations to leave Gabrielle for the campaign against the Spaniards. It was probably Bertaut, Bishop of Séez, who, at the king's 'dictation,' composed the four couplets of the romance, of which we give the first, with the music in its revived form:—

{ \time 3/4 \partial 4 \relative g' { g4 g2 c4 b( a) g c c e g2 \acciaccatura f8 e4 d16 c8 d16 e4\turn( d) | c2 g4 g2 c4 b( a) g | c c e g2 \acciaccatura f8 e4 d16 c8 d16 e4\turn( d) | c2. c4 d e | c( b\prall) a d \acciaccatura c8 b4 c d f2 | e( d4) c d e c( b\prall) a d \acciaccatura c8 b4 c | d2 e16 d c d | c2. \bar "||" }
\addlyrics { Char -- man -- te Ga -- bri -- el -- le, Per -- cé de mil -- _ _ le dards, Quand la gloi -- re m'ap -- pel -- le Dans les sen -- _ tiers _ de Mars. Cru -- el -- le dé -- par -- ti -- e! Mal -- heu -- reux jour! Que ne suis -- je sans vi -- e. Ou sans a -- _ _ _ mour! } }

The refrain is not original; it is to be found word for word in the 'Thesaurus harmonicus' of Besard (1603), and in the 'Cabinet ou Trésor des nouvelles chansons' (1602); and as at that time it took more than five or six years for an air to travel from the court to the people, we may safely conclude that it was no novelty.