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lished at Vienna by Künike, representing Handel without a wig. There is an unfinished plate, supposed to be unique, which represents him holding a scroll of music, and has a likeness to the portrait by Denner; and another, almost unique, 'Etch'd by D. C. Read from a Picture by Hogarth in his possession,' which is contemptible as a portrait and as a work of art.

Beside these, a picture said to be by Hogarth and to represent Handel, has been copied in mezzotint by C. Turner, which has no claim to consideration on either of those grounds.

The best are the two prints by Faber and Houbraken.

The following is a list of his works[1]:—

2 Italian Oratorios; 'Il Trionfo del Tempo e del disinganno' (1707–8), and 'La Resurrezione' (1708).

1 German 'Passion' (1717–18).

19 English Oratorios: 'Esther'* (1720), 'Deborah'* (1733), 'Athalia'* (1733), 'Saul'* (1738), 'Israel'* (1738), 'Messiah'* (1741), 'Samson'* (1741), 'Joseph' (1743), 'Hercules'* (1744), 'Belshazzar'* (1744), 'Occasional'* (1746), 'Judas Maccabaeus'* (1746), 'Alexander Balus'* (1747), 'Joshua'* (1747), 'Solomon'* (1748), 'Susanna'* (1748), 'Theodora'* (1749), 'Jephtha'* (1751), 'Triumph of Time and Truth' (1757).

5 Te Deums: 'Utrecht'* (1713). 2 'Chandos'* (1718–20), Queen Caroline's* (?1737), 'Dettingen'* (1743).

6 Psalms; 'Dixit Domlnus'* et 'Gloria' (1707). 'Laudate'* et 'Gloria' (1707). 'Laudate' et 'Gloria' (1707–9), 'Nisi Dominus' (1707–9). Utrecht 'Jubilate' (1713), Arrangement of Utrecht 'Jubilate' (?1737).

20 Anthems; 12 'Chandos'(* 10) (1718–20). 4 'Coronation'* (1727), 1 'Wedding' (performed 1736), 1 'Funeral'* (1737), 1 'Dettingen' (1743), 1 'Foundling Hospital' (1749).

Arrangements of 4 of the 'Chandos' Anthems for the Chapel Royal (?1727).

Some Recits. in a Wedding Anthem (pasticcio) for the Marriage of the Princess Anne, taken from Athalia, and from the seventh Chandos Anthem (1734).

1 Motet: 'Silete, venti'* (1707–9).

Miscellaneous sacred: a 'Gloria'* (1707–9). 'Kyrie' (1707–9), 'Magnificat' (? 1707–9); 3 Hymns, 'The Invitation.' 'Desiring to love,' and on 'The Resurrection' (1742).

3 German Operas; 'Almira' (1704). 'Nero' (performed 1705), 'Florindo und Daphne' (1706).

39 Italian Operas: 'Roderigo'* (1706). 'Agrippina'* (1707), 'Silla' (1707–9), 'Rinaldo' (1711), 'Pastor Fido' (1712), 'Teseo' (1712), 'Amadigi' ('Oriana' at Hamburg) (?1715), 'Radamisto'* ('Zenobia' at Hamburg) (?1720), Muzio Scævola'* (1721), 'Floridante'* (?1721), 'Ottone'* (1722), 'Flavio'* (1723), 'Giulio Cesare'* (1723), 'Tamerlano'* (1724), 'Rodelinda'* (1725), 'Scipione'* (1726), 'Alessandro'* (or 'Roxana') (1726), 'Admeto' (?1727), 'Riccardo 1°.'* (1727), 'Siroe'* (1728), 'Tolomeo'* (1728), 'Lotario'* ('Judith' at Hamburg) (1729), 'Partenope'* (1730), 'Poro'* ('Cleofida' at Hamburg) (1731), 'Ezio'* (?1731), 'Sosarme'* (1732), 'Orlando'* (1732), 'Arianna'* (1733), 'Ariodante'* (1734), 'Alcina'* (1735), 'Atalanta'* (1736), 'Giustino'* (1736), 'Arminio'* (1736), 'Berenice'* (1737), 'Faramondo'* (1737), 'Serse'* (1738), Airs in 'Jupiter in Argos' (pasticcio) (1739), 'Imeneo'* (1738–40), 'Deidamia'* (1740).

Fragments of 'Flavio Olibrio,' an opera which Handel abandoned after the beginning. 'Lucio Vero' was a mere pasticcio (1747) containing not one note of new music.

Fragments of 'Titus' (?1731); Recits. to 'Semiramide,' 'Arbace,' and 'Calo Fabrizio' (pasticci, 1733–4); 5 pieces and an Overture to 'Orestes' (pasticcio, 1731); Overture to 'Alessandro Severo' (pasticcio, 1738); and fragments of an Opera without name or date.

1 English Opera, 'Alcestes' (1749) called 'Alcides' by Dr. Arnold, partly used in 'The Choice of Hercules.'

2 Italian Serenatas: 'Aci, Galatea, e Poliferno'* (1708), 13 Airs and Choruses for 'Parnasso in Festa' (performed 1734).

2 English Serenatas: 'Acis and Galatea'* (1721). 'Semele'* (1743).

1 English Interlude, 'The Choice of Hercules'* (1750).

1 Italian Intermezzo, 'Terpsichore' (performed, 1734).

4 Odes; Queen Anne's 'Birthday Ode'* (1712), 'Alexander's Feast'* (1736), 'Dryden's Ode,' on 'St. Cecilia's Day'* (1739), 'L'Allegro, il Penseroso, ed il Moderato'* (1740).

2 Chamber Trios: 'Se tu non lasci amore,' 'Quel fior che all' alba ride' (1708).

24 Chamber Duets: 13 called 'Hanover Duets' (1711); 2, 'Quel fior.' 'No, di vol' (1741); 3, 'Beato in ver,' 'No, di vol,' 'Fronda leggiera' (1742); 1, 'Qual seria' (1745); 5. 'Gio net Tartarei,' 'Caro autor' (1), 'Caro autor' (2), 'Ah, nella sorte,' 'Spero indarno' (n. d.).

1 Italian Duet, 'L'amore innocente.' unpublished and lost (performed March 28. 1738).

94 Cantatas: 1, 'Passion.' German (1704); 12, called 'Hanover' (1711); 79 written in Italy, unpublished (1706–12); 2, 'Cecilia. volgi.' 'Sei del cielo' (1736).

7 French Songs (1707–9).

19 English Songs (v.d.). found separate or in various Song-books (1715–1756).

1 English Air, unpublished. 'For ever let his sacred raptures' (n. d.).

16 Italian Airs and Canzonets, unpublished (n. d.).


6 Sonatas (Trios), lost, (1694).

12 Sonatas (Solos). Op. 1 (published 1732).

6 Sonatas (Trios). Op. 2 (published 1732).

6 Concertos (Hoboy). Op. 3 (published 1734).

1st Set.. 6 Organ Concertos* (7 parts). Op. 4 (published 1734).

7 Sonatas (Trios). Op. 5 (published 1735).

12 Grand Concertos.* Op. 6 (1739. Published 1739).

2nd Set. 6 Organ Concertos* (2 with 7 Instrumental parts) (published 1741). The Instrumental parts to these (published 1760).

3rd Set. 6 Organ Concertos* (7 Instrumental parts). Op. 7 (1740–51. Published 1761).

3 Organ Concertos (7 Instrumental parts) (published 1797) (Arnold).

Concertante in 9 parts (1735), 'Water Musick' in 7 parts (1715).

Tunes in the 'Alchymist' (1732), 'Forest Music' (1741–2), 'Fireworks Music'* (1749), Hornpipe (1740), Sonata for 2 Violins (1736), Sonata in 5 parts (1736); Sonata for Violin, Sonata for Hoboy, Violin, and Viola, and an Overture (n. d.).


4 Pieces, in Holland (?1710).

1st Set. Suites de Pièces (published 1720).

4 Minuets and a March (published 1720).

2nd Set. Suites de Pièces (published 1738).

6 Pieces (published 1798). 4 Pieces (published 1859 by the German Handel Society), Six Fugues for Organ or Harpsichord* (1720 Published 1735).

[ J. M. ]

[App. pp.664–5 "Among the Handel MSS. preserved in the Royal Library at Buckingham Palace is a 'Magnificat,' in the great Composer's own hand-writing, for eight Voices, disposed in a Double Choir, with accompaniments for two Violins, Viola, Basso, two Hautboys, and Organ. The work is divided into twelve Movements, disposed in the following order:—

  1. 'Magnificat anima mea.' (Chorus.)
  2. 'Et exultavit.' (Duet for two Trebles.)
  3. 'Quia respexit.' (Chorus.)
  4. 'Quia fecit mihi magna.' (Duet for two Basses.)
  5. 'Fecit potentiam.' (Chorus.)
  6. 'Deposuit potentes.' (Alto Solo.)
  7. 'Esurientes.' (Duet, Alto and Tenor.)
  8. 'Suscepit Israel.' (Chorus.)
  9. 'Sicut locutus est.' (Chorus.)
  10. 'Gloria Patri.' (Tenor Solo.)
  11. A Ritornello, for Stringed Instruments only.
  12. 'Sicut erat.' (Chorus.)

Unhappily, the MS. is imperfect, and terminates with the Duet we have indicated as No. 7. For the remaining movements, we are indebted to another MS., preserved in the Royal College of Music. The existence of this second copy—a very incorrect one, evidently scored from the separate parts by a copyist whose carelessness it would be difficult to exaggerate—has given rise to grave doubts as to the authorship of the work. It is headed 'Magnificat. Del Rd. Sigr. Erba': and, on the strength of this title, Chrysander attributes the work to a certain Don Dionigi Erba, who flourished at Milan at the close of the 17th century. M. Schœlcher, on the other hand, repudiates the superscription; and considers that, in introducing some six or seven Movements of the 'Magnificat' into the Second Part of 'Israel in Ægypt,' and one, the 'Sicut locutus est' into 'Susannah,' as 'Yet his bolt,' Handel was only making a perfectly justifiable use of his own property; and this opinion was endorsed by the late Sir G. A. Macfarren. The reader will find the arguments on both sides of the question stated, in extenso, in the Appendix to M. Schœlcher's 'Life of Handel,' and in the first volume of that by Dr. Chrysander; and must form his own judgment as to their validity. For ourselves, we do not hesitate to avow our conviction that M. Schœlcher is in the right, in so far as the authorship is concerned, though he errs in ascribing it to the 'Italian period' on the ground that it is written on thick Italian paper. The paper is of English manufacture, bearing a water-mark which, taken in conjunction with the character of the handwriting, proves the MS. to have been written in England about 1735–40; and, as 'Israel' was written in 1736, nothing is more likely than that Handel should have transferred passages from one work to the other. After a careful examination of both the MSS., it seems to us, not only that the external evidence, as far as it goes, is in favour of this view; but, that the style of the Composition points, throughout, to Handel, as its undoubted author. Notwithstanding a few passages to which exception has been taken, it everywhere betrays such evident traces of the Master's hand, that we feel assured no critic would ever have dreamed of questioning its authenticity, but for the doubtful name on a MS. copy chiefly remarkable for its inaccuracy. It is to be hoped, however, that the matter will not be allowed to rest here. Some further evidence must, sooner or later, be produced, on one side or the other. If Erba really wrote the 'Magnificat,' some trace of it ought to be found in Italy. Meanwhile, it is much to be wished that some enterprising publisher would facilitate the discussion, by issuing a cheap edition of the work, no part of which has yet appeared in print. For further information see vol. i. p. 491 and 654, and the present writer's Life of Handel, chap. xxvii.

[ W. S. R. ]

HANDEL, COMMEMORATION OF. Early in 1783 three musical amateurs, Viscount Fitzwilliam, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, and Joah Bates, conceived the idea of celebrating the centenary of the birth of Handel (1684–5) by performing some of his works on a scale then unprecedented in England. The scheme being supported by the leading musical professors and the Directors of the Concert of Ancient Music (who undertook the arrangement of the performances), and warmly entered into by the King, it was determined to carry it into effect by giving two performances in Westminster Abbey (where Handel was buried), and one at the Pantheon. The first performance was given in the Abbey on Wednesday morning, May 26, 1784; it consisted of 'The Dettingen Te Deum,' one of the Coronation Anthems, one of the Chandos Anthems, part of the Funeral Anthem, and a few other fragments. The second was on Thursday evening, May 27, at the Pantheon, and comprised various songs and choruses, sacred and secular, four concertos and an overture. The third was at the Abbey on Saturday morning, May 29, when 'Messiah' was given. These performances were so attractive as to lead to s repetition of the first day's music, with some little variations, at the Abbey, on Thursday morning, June 3, and of 'Messiah,' at the same place, on Saturday morning, June 5. The orchestra (erected at the west end of the nave, and surmounted by an organ built for the occasion by Green) contained 525 performers, viz. 59 sopranos, 48 altos, 83 tenors, and 84 basses; 48 first and 47 second violins, 26 violas, 21 violoncellos, 15 double basses, 6 flutes, 26 oboes, 26 bassoons, 1 double bassoon, 12 trumpets, 12 horns, 6 trombones, 4 drums, and the conductor (at the organ), Joah Bates. The principal vocalists, who are included in the above enumeration, were Madame Mara, Miss Harwood, Miss Cantelo, Miss Abrams, Miss Theodosia Abrams, and Signor Bartolini; Rev. Mr. Clerk, Dyne, and Knyvett, altos; Harrison,

  1. Where the date of composition is not even approximately known, that of publication has been given. An asterisk is added to the names of the works the autographs of which are preserved in Buckingham Palace. Some of the volumes in that collection contain Anthems, Duets, Sketches, Fragments, Sonatas, &c. impossible to designate with an asterisk in the above short list. The writer desires to r-xi>rr hi* obligation to M. Schœlcher for the first draft of this useful catalogue.