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in these still easily accessible volumes can be brought into general use, something must be done to counteract the vicious effect of the 'original' melodies which are now universally preferred to them—sentimental effusions, mostly the work of amateurs, and written always in imitation of the lowest grade of popular partsong, without one single characteristic which can fit them for association with the solemn and often extremely beautiful words, the sense of which they are commonly supposed not only to illustrate but to intensify.

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Among the more important and typical collections of metrical hymns and tunes, published in this country for use in Divine worship during the last quarter of a century, the following may be named:—

National Psalmody, [1]B. Jacob (Novello); another edition, called 'Surrey Chapel Music.' V. Novello (Novello). The Psalter with appropriate Tunes, John Hullah, 1843 (J. W. Parker). Church of England Psalmody. Rev. H. Parr, with List of Composers and Authorities, 1846–77 (Novello). The Standard Psalm-tune Book, H. E. Dibdin, 1852 (Shaw). The Union Tune Book, J. I. Cobbin, 1854 (Sunday School Union), with Supplement by John Hullah, 1879. The Hymnal Noted, Rev. T. Helmore, 1853 (Novello). The Church Psalter and Hymn Book (Mercer's), John Goss, 1857 (Nisbet). Hymns Ancient and Modern, W. H. Monk, 1861–75 (Clowes). The Congregational Psalmist, Dr. Gauntlett, 1862 (Hodder & Stoughton). The Chorale-book for England, W. S. Bennett and Otto Goldschmidt, 1863 (Longmans). The Bristol Tune Book, 1863 (Novello). A Hymnal, chiefly from the Book of Praise, J. Hullah, 1868 (Macmillans). The Hymnary, J. Barnby, 1872 (Novello). The Church Hymnal [for Ireland], Sir R. P. Stewart, 1873–78, with excellent Biographical Index by Major Crawford (Dublin, S.P.C.K.). Church Hymns with Tunes, A. Sullivan, 1874 (London, S.P.C.K.). Wesley's Hymns and New Supplement, John [App. p.684 "George"] Cooper and E. J. Hopkins, 1877 (Wesleyan Conference Office). Scottish Psalmody, etc., authorised by the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland, 1878 (Nelsons). The Book of Psalms and Scottish Hymnal, by authority of the General Assembly, W. H. Monk, 1879 (Edinburgh, Nelsons). The Presbyterian Hymnal of the U. P. Church, Henry Smart (A. Elliot). The Office of Praise [Baptist] (Hamilton, Adams, & Co.). The Psalter and Hymn Book of the Presbyterian Church (Nisbet). The Christian Hymnal (Shaw). America:—Hymns and Songs of Praise, John K. Paine, U. C. Burnap, and James Flint, 1874 (New York, Randolph).

HYMN OF PRAISE. The English title of Mendelssohn's Lobgesang.

HYMNS ANCIENT AND MODERN. The originator of this Hymnal was the Rev. Sir Henry Williams Baker, Bart., vicar of Monkland in the diocese of Hereford, who wrote and translated many of the hymns which it contains, and by his ability, by his profound knowledge of hymnology, and by his energetic discharge of the duties of chairman of its committee for twenty years, mainly contributed to its success. After ascertaining by private communications the widely spread desire of Churchmen for greater uniformity in the use of hymns and of hymnbooks in the services of the Church, Sir Henry Baker early in 1858 associated with himself for this object about twenty clergymen, including the editors of many existing Hymnals, who agreed to give up their several books in order as far as might be to promote the use of one.

In the autumn of that year an advertisement was inserted in the 'Guardian' inviting cooperation, to which more than 200 clergymen responded. In January 1859 the committee set to work. A specimen was issued in May of the same year. In 1860 the first Edition was published, with the Imprimatur of Dr. Hampden, Sir Henry Baker's diocesan. The first 'Edition with Tunes,' under the musical editorship of Professor W. H. Monk, King's College, London, appeared March 20, 1861. An 'Appendix' in Dec. 1868, and in 1875 'The Revised and Enlarged Edition,' completing the work.

Since its first introduction 20 million copies of the book have been sold. Its publication is continued at present by the survivors of the original committee, and in the future it will be continued by a body of trustees constituted by deed for its management.

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HYPER- (Gr. ὑπερ, over, above; Lat. super). A prefix, extensively used in the terminology of antient Greek music—wherein it appears in the names of the five Acute Modes—and thence transferred to the musical system of the Middle Ages. The nomenclature of the one system must, however, be very carefully distinguished from that of the other; for, though the same terms are, in many cases, common to both, they are used to designate very different things. For instance, the discarded Locrian Mode (B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B) is often called the Hyper-æolian, in recognition of the fact that its range lies a tone above that of the true Æolian; but this Mode has no connexion whatever with the Hyper-æolian of the Greeks; neither have the Authentic Modes, as we now use them, the slightest affinity with the Greek acute forms, though the prefix 'hyper' has sometimes been very unnecessarily added to the names of all of them. [See Modes.]

Greek authors constantly use the prepositions ὑπερ and ὑπο in what we should now consider an inverted sense; applying the former to grave sounds, and the latter to acute ones. This apparent contradiction vanishes when we remember that they are speaking, not of the gravity or acuteness of the sounds, but of the position on the lyre of the strings designed to produce them.

The prefix Hypo- (Gr. ὑπο, under, below; Lat. sub) was applied, in antient Greek music, to the names of the five Grave Modes. In the Middle Ages it was added to the names of the seven Plagal Modes—the Hypo-dorian, the Hypo-phrygian, the Hypo-lydian, the Hypo-mixo-lydian, the Hypo-æolian, the discarded Hypo-locrian, and the Hypo-ionian—the range of which lies a fourth below that of their Authentic originals. [See Modes.]

Early writers also add this prefix to the names of certain intervals, when reckoned downwards, instead of upwards; as Hypo-diatessaron ( = Subdiatessaron), a fourth below; Hypo-diapente ( = Subdiapente), a fifth below. [See Interval.]

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  1. The name given in each case is that of the Editor of the tunes.