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placing before an English audience an opera composed after the Italian manner, with recitative instead of spoken dialogue. For this purpose he selected the 'Artaserse' of Metastasio, which he himself translated into English. Departing to a great extent from his former style he crowded many of the airs with florid divisions, particularly those in the part of Mandane, which he composed for his pupil, Miss Brent. The other singers were Teuducci, Peretti, Beard, Mattocks, and Miss Thomas. The success of the work was decided, and 'Artaxerxes' retained possession of the stage for upwards of three-quarters of a century. The part of Mandane was long considered the touchstone of the powers of a soprano singer. The composer sold the copyright for sixty guineas, an insignificant amount compared with the sums which later composers obtained, but probably as much as the then more limited demand for music justified the publisher in giving. On Feb. 29, 1764, Dr. Arne produced his second oratorio, 'Judith,' at the chapel of the Lock Hospital, in Grosvenor Place, Pimlico, for the benefit of the charity. In 1765 he set Metastasio's opera 'Olimpiade,' in the original language, and had it performed at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. It was represented however but twice, owing, it has been supposed, to some petty jealousy of an Englishman composing for an Italian theatre. In 1769 Dr. Arne set such portions of the ode, written by Garrick for the Shakspere jubilee at Stratford-on-Avon, as were intended to be sung, and some other incidental music for the same occasion. His last dramatic composition was the music for Mason's 'Caractacus' in 1776. Dr. Arne produced numerous glees, catches, and canons, seven of which obtained prizes at the Catch Club, and instrumental music of various kinds. He died March 5, 1778, and was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Shortly before his dissolution he sang with his dying breath a Hallelujah. Mrs. Arne survived her husband about seventeen years, dying in 1795. It must not be forgotten that Dr. Arne was the first introducer of female voices into oratorio choruses; which he did at Covent Garden Theatre on Feb. 26, 1773, in a performance of his own 'Judith.' Dr. Arne was author as well as composer of 'The Guardian outwitted,' 'The Rose,' 'The Contest of Beauty and Virtue,' and 'Phoebe at Court,' and the reputed author of 'Don Saverio' and 'The Cooper.' A fine portrait of him by Zoffany is in the possession of the Sacred Harmonic Society.

The following is a list of Dr. Arne's com- positions:—

Oratorios: Abel, 1755, Judith, 1764. Operas and other musical pieces: Rosamond, 1733. The Opera of Operas, or Tom Thumb the Great, 1733. Dido and Æneas, 1734. The Fall of Phaeton. 1736. Music in Zara, 1736. Cornus, 1738. The Judgement of Paris, 1740. Alfred, 1740. Songs in As You Like It, 1740. Songs in Twelfth Night, 1741. The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. 1741. Songs in The Merchant of Venice, 1742. Britannia, 1743. Eliza, 1743. Thomas and Sally, 1743. The Temple of Dulness, 1745. King Pepin's Campaign, 1745. Music in The Tempest, 1746. Neptune and Amphitrite, 1740. Don Saverio, 1749. Dirge in Romeo and Juliet, 1750. The Prophetess, 1758. The Sultan, 1759. Artaxerxes, 1762. Love in a Village (chiefly compiled), 1762. The Birth of Hercules (not acted), 1763. The Guardian outwitted, 1764. Olimpiade (Italian opera), 1765. The Ladles' Frolic, 1770. Additions to Purcell's King Arthur, 1770. The Fairy Prince, 1771. The Cooper, 1772. Choruses in Mason's Elfrida, 1772. The Rose, 1773. The Contest of Beauty and Virtue, 1773. Achilles in Petticoats, 1773. May Day, 1775. Phoebe at Court, 1776. Music in Mason's Caractacus, 1776. Besides these Arne composed many incidental songs, etc. for other plays, as The Tender Husband, The Rehearsal, The Rival Queens, etc. Collections of songs under the following titles: Lyric Harmony, The Agreeable Musical Choice, Summer Amusement, The Winter's Amusements, The Syren, Vocal Melody, 1753, The Vocal Grove, 1774, and nearly twenty books of songs sung at Vauxhall, Ranelagh, and Marylebone Gardens. Glees, Cathches and Canons: thirteen glees, ten catches, and six canons, are printed in Warren's collections. Ode on Shakspere, 1769. Sonatas or lessons for the harpsichord. Organ Concertos. Overtures etc. for the orchestra. [App. p.523 adds "'The Trip to Portsmouth,' 'Reffley Spring' (1772), and music to Mason's tragedy of 'Elfrida.'"]

[ W. H. H. ]

ARNOLD, Johann Gottfried, violoncellist and composer, born in 1773, was the son of the schoolmaster of Niedernhall near Oehringen in Würtemberg. From his earliest childhood he showed such a passion and aptitude for music that his father apprenticed him in his twelfth year to the musical director (Stadtmusikus) of the neighbouring town of Künzelsau. During this time he devoted himself chiefly to the practice of the violoncello, at which, under the influence of a most exacting master, he worked with such diligence as, it is said, permanently to injure his health. In 1789 his term of apprenticeship came to an end, and the following year he took his first regular engagement at Wertheim, where his uncle, Friedrich Adam Arnold, was established as musical director. He continued to study with unabated energy. After making concert tours in Switzerland and Germany, he spent some time at Ratisbon in order to take advantage of the instruction of the able violoncellist Willmann. Making constant improvement, he visited Berlin and Hamburg, at which latter town he had the good fortune to make the acquaintance of Bernard Romberg, whose style and method he studied to great advantage. In 1798 he became attached to the theatre at Frankfort as first violoncellist, where he occupied himself much with composition, and enjoyed a great reputation both as executant and teacher. The career however of this young and talented artist was speedily cut short, for he died of an affection of the lungs in 1806 at the early age of thirty-four. Besides compositions and 'transcriptions' for his own particular instrument, he wrote original pieces for the flute and piano, and made quartet arrangements of various operas, etc. Fétis ('Biographie') gives a list of his compositions, including five concertos for the violoncello; a symphonic concertante for two flutes and orchestra; airs with variations, op. 9 (Bonn); easy pieces for the guitar, etc.

[ T. P. H. ]

ARNOLD, Samuel, Mus. Doc. Born in London, Aug. 10, 1740, and educated in the Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates and Dr. Nares. His progress was so great that before he had attained his twenty-third year Beard engaged him as composer to Covent Garden Theatre, where in 1765 he brought out the opera of 'The Maid of the Mill.' Many of the songs were selected from the works of Bach, Galuppi, Jomelli, and other Italian writers. This opera was one of the first, since the time of Purcell, in which concerted music was employed to carry on the business of the stage, and it was used by Arnold with great cleverness. The success of the work decided the composer's future connection