Page:A Grammar of the Urdū Or Hindūstānī Language in Its Romanized Character.djvu/61

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67. honā 'to be' or 'become.' Root, ho.

Verbal Nouns.[1]

Gerund (or Infinitive), honā 'being' or 'to be.' Agent (present or future), honewālā, honehārā, 'one who is,' or 'who is to become'; honhār 'what may (or will) be.'



Past or Perfect, huā 'been' or 'become.'

Past Conjunctive, ho, -ho(Symbol missingsymbol characters) e, hoke, hokar 'having been' or 'become.'

Present or Imperfect, hotā 'being.'

Adverbial Past, hūe 'having been.'

Adverbial Present, hote 'being,'


Present Continuative,[3] hotā huā 'while being.'

Adverbial Progressive, hote hote 'whilst being.'

Adverbial Emphatic or Intensive, hote-hī 'on being,' 'at the instant of being or becoming.'

  1. There seems to be no Verbal Noun, in use, synonymous with the Root of honā. The nearest to it is the word bhav ((Symbol missingIndic characters)) 'being' or 'the world,' a derivative, like honā, from the Sanskrit bhavana ({indic missing}}) 'to be.' bhavan is also used for 'a house' or 'temple.'
  2. The word hūā, is a mere euphonic spelling and pronunciation of the Urdu (Symbol missingUrdu characters), which might as well be transliterated ho(Symbol missingsymbol characters)ā, and so better show its conformity with the Rule for the formation of the Perfect Participle, viz. by adding the vowel a to the root of the Verb.
  3. Hana cannot well have a Past-Perfect (or a Passive) Compound Participle, e.g. huā huā.