sician ami Surgeon." and was a fre- quent contributor to the journal lit- erature and wrote sections in Harris' "Principles and Practice of Dentistry" and in Loomis' "Text-book of Medi- cine." Among his most valuable ar- ticles are those on alcoholism, acti- nomycosis and diseases of children. He died May 1(1, 190(), from Bright's Disease. He knew that his case was hopeless several years before the end, but he stuck to his work until the last year of his life. Then with that fine sensibility which characterized him, he offered his resignation, but his faculty refused to accept it, and he remained in office until his death.
E. F. C.
Cordell's " .Medical Annals of Maryland," 1903, and sketch by his colleague, W. R. Stokes, in "Old Maryland," vol. iv. No. 1, Jan., 190S. There are portraits at the College of Physicians and Surgeons and at the University of Marjland, Baltimore.
Lawrence, Jason Valentine O'Brien
Lawrence spent six years in study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received his M. D. degree in 1815, returning at once to New Orleans, and beginning the practice of medicine with Dr. Flood, his step-father. Dur- ing his study at the University of Pennsylvania, he had acquired a taste for the more scientific aspects of med- icine, which caused him, three years after his return, to sacrifice an unusu- ally brilliant prospect of entering upon a large practice at home so that he might return to Philadelphia for fur- ther scientific study.
At that period the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania closed its doors in April and was not again opened until the following No- vember. To offer advantages to those desiring to study during this vacation period, Lawrence opened a private school in which he gave a course on anatomy and surgery. This course began in March, had a recess in August, and ended in November. He gave
six lectures a week and these were distinguished for the ease and per- spicuity of their style and attracted many students. His school differed from the private courses in anatomy given by numerous practitioners at this time, in that it was more syste- matically organized, and was open to the public, while the lessons given by others were more in the natun^ of instruction to private pupils. The school founded l)y Lawrence existed for many years, and later became known as the Philadelphia School of Anatomy. In 1875 this school was closed, but soon afterwards another school bearing the same name was opened by a former teacher in the school, and was continued until recent years.
In the fall of 1818 Lawrence became assistant to Dr. Gibson, professor of surgery at the University of Pennsy- vania, and in 1822 he was also made assistant to Dr. Horner, then adjunct professor of anatomy, and about the same time he was appointed surgeon to the Philadelphia Hospital.
Although if Lawrence had lived, he would probably have established an extensive practice in Philadelphia, his devotion to scientific teaching and study during the earlier years of his life left him little time to work at l)uilding up a trade among the w^ealthy. While he was attending the poor, dur- ing an epidemic of typhus fever in 1823 he was stricken with a mortal illness. He was at that time but thirty-two years old.
In 1821 the "Academy of Medicine was formed for the development of scientific medicine." Lawrence was an active member of this academy. He was diligent in scientific investiga- tion, one of his chief pieces of work being the " Study of the Action of Veins as Absorbents." Dr. Chap- man, professor of practice and physi- ology at the University of Pennsyl- vania became interested in the views brought forward by Magendi, that