His early education was in the schools of his native city; and in 1819, he received his M. D. at the University of Penn- sylvania.
He began to practice in Charleston, and in 1824 took an active part in the organi- zation of the Medical College of South Carolina. He was elected to the chair of chemistry in the new college, which posi- tion he held for ten years, afterwards remo\'ing to his country home where he devoted himself to planting until the close of the war when he returned to Charleston. During the summer months he lived on Sullivans Island where he occupied the leisure hours stolen from his practice with gathering his large and valuable collection of shells. This col- lection contained 3500 species of land, fresh water and marine shells from all parts of the world. What remains of this collection is now preserved in the Charleston Museum. The catalogue of Dr. Ravenel's collection made in 1834 was interesting as being the first of its kind published in America. He was a contemporary and correspondent of Say, Lea, Conrad, Gould and other pioneers of conchology in this country.
In his later years he lived in his home at Charleston, a victim of almost total blindness, where he died, July 27, 1870.
He married twice: First to Charlotte Ford and afterwards to Louisa C. Ford. By his first wife he had one daughter; and by his second, eight children, one of whom, Edmund, studied medicine.
The following is a partial list of his pubUcations:
"Catalogue of the Echinidse, Recent and Fossil, of South Carolina." "Pam- phlet, Charlestion, South Carolina," 1848.
" Description of Three New Species of Univalves, Recent and Fossil." "Pro- ceedings of Elliott Society of Natural History," vol. i, 1858.
"The Limestone Springs of St. John's Berkeley, and Their Probable Availa- bility for Increasing the quantity of Fresh Water in Cooper River." " Proceedings of Elliott Society of Natural History," vol. ii, 1860.
" TellinidiB of South Carolina." " Pro- ceedings of Elliott Society of Natural History," vol. ii, 1860.
"Catalogue of Recent Shells in the Cabinet of Dr. Edmund Ravenel." "Pamphlet, Charleston, South Carolina," 1834.
" Description of Two Species of Fossil Scutella from South Carolina." "Jour- nal Academy of Natural Sciences," Phila- delphia, vol. viii.
" Description of New Recent Shells from the Coast of South CaroUna." " Proceeding Academy of Natural Science Philadelphia," 1861.
"Paper on Some South Carolina Fos- sils." "Proceeding Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia," vol. ii, 1844.
Dr. Ravenel was Vice-president of the Elliott Society of Natural History, Charleston, South Carolina, from its organization in November, 1853 to his death.
R. W., Jr.
Ravenel, St. Julien (1819-1882).
St. Julien Ravenel was born at Charles- ton, South Carolina, December 19, 1819. Through his father, John Ravenel, he was descended from Ren^ Ravenel, of Bre- tagne, who emigrated to South Carolina after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and through his mother, Eliza- beth Ford, of Morristown, New Jersey, he traced descent from the old Gualdo family of Vicenza, Italy.
His boyish education was had in Charleston, South Carolina, and at Morristown, New Jersey, and he began the study of medicine with Dr. J. E. Holbrook, graduating from the Medical College of the State of South Carolina in 1840, and for two years following he studied at Philadelphia and at Paris.
Upon his return in 1842 he was elected demonstrator of anatomy in the Medical College of the State of South Carolina. When the war between the States broke out he entered the Confederate service and was appointed surgeon of the Twenty-fifth South Carolina Regiment. Subsequently he was appointed chemist