greatly reduced its price. His studies on emery and its associate minerals led directly to its discovery in America and in Massachusetts and North Carolina a large industrial product of emery is now on. To him justly belongs the credit of having done almost everything for these commercial enterprises by his successful researches on emery and corundum, he also investigated a great many Turkish resources, and his paper on "The Ther- mal waters of Asia Minor, " is of great scientific value. In 1S50 he invented the inverted microscope. This instrument, with its ingenious eye-piece micrometer and goniometer is an important improve- ment. ("American Journal of Science and Arts," New Haven, 1S52, 2 s., xiv.) This instrument has been unjustly figured and described in some works as Nachet's chemical microscope.
After Dr. Smith's return to America, his alma mater, the University of Vir- ginia, called him to the chair of chemistry, in which, with the help of his assistant, George J. Brush, he performed the valuable work of revising the " Chemistry of American Minerals." Having married a daughter of the Hon. James Guthrie of Louisville, Kentucky, Prof. Smith resigned his chair in the University of Virginia, and adopted Louisville as his home and in 1854 was made professor of chemistry in the medical department of the University of Louisville, but he finally resigned it to devote his time to scientific research.
In 1855 he published a valuable memoir on "Meteorites," his private collection of which was one of the largest in the world.
In 1873 he issued an interesting work containing the more important of his scientific researches and he contributed a large number of valuable papers to various scientific journals. Prof. Smith was very ingenious in devising new appa- ratus and methods of analysis. While much of his work was of a practical kind, he yet preferred original research in the less cultivated fields. While studying samarskite he discovered what he thought
to be a new element which he named mosandrium. In 1878 he published an account of his researches on this subject, winch attracted much attention among scientists.
Prof. Smith was a most indefatigable worker; his more important original researches number nearly one hundred and fifty. He co-edited " The Southern Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy," Charleston, 1846.
In 1879 he was elected corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France to succeed Sir Charles Lyell. Prof. Smith received honors from the principal scientific bodies of the world. He was a member of the following societies: The American National Academy of Sciences; Membre Correspondant de I'lnstitut de France (Academic des Sciences) ; the Chemical Society of Berlin; of the Chemical Society of Paris; of the Chemical Society of London; of the Soci6t6 d'Encourage- ment pour 1' Industrie Nationale; of the Imperial Mineralogical Society of St. Petersburg; American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was Chev- alier de la Legion d'Honneur; member of the order of Nichan Iftahar of Turkey; member of the order of Medjidiah of Turkey; chevalier of the Imperial Order of St. Stanislas, of Russia.
Prof. Smith was of imposing presence and great dignity, strong, pure-hearted, withal one of the most modest and unos- tentatious of men. He was most gener- ous with his apparatus, and anyone manifesting an interest in science was sure of help and encouragement.
J. B. M.
Pop. Sci. Month., N. Y., 1S74-J, vol. vi
LouLsville Med. News, 1870, vol. viii.
In Memoriam (M. Michel) Charleston, S. C,
Year Book City of Charleston, S. C, 1883.
Smith, Joseph Mather (1789-1866).
"Forty years a public teacher in medicine, forty-six years constantly concerned in the active duties of public hospitals; for more that thirty years a