in its broadest significance covered almost the entire subject of medicine except anatomy, surgery and materia medica, but practically was a synonym for jihysiology. In 1S27 ])r. Nathaniel Chapman was the professor of practice and institutes, but finding the subject too extensive, Jackson was appointed assistant and delivered the course on Institutes. In 1835 a chair of institutes was established and Jackson elected to it, resigning in 1863 after twenty-eight years' incumbenc}\ lie died April 4, 1872, nine years after his resignation, aged eighty-two years.
OIil Ponn.. vol. viii, 1910. Addre.ss by .Jmiiks
Ty.son, M. D.
The Life and Character of iSamuel Jackson.
Phila., 1S72 (J. Carson).
Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., 1850, vol. xli
Tr. Med. Soc. Penn., Phila., 1897, vol. ,\ii
(J. L. Stewart).
James, Frank Lowber (1841-1907).
For eighteen years Frank Lowber James edited the "National Druggist," besides devoting much time to the study of microscopy. At one time he also edited the "St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal." He was a scientist, journalist and soldier; travelled extensiveh' in many lands, and held the degree of doctor of philosophy from the University of Munich. Born in Mobile, he was sent abroad to complete studies in chemistry, for which he had shown natural proclivi- ties, and became a pupil of Baron Justus von Liebig, and also a member of his household. At the beginning of the war, James returned and entered the Con- federate Army in the Nitre and Mining Bureau. He had special charge of the explo.sives and torpedo work in Mobile Bay, for which distinguished service he was outlawed and a price set on his head by the Federal Government. He was captured, taken to New Orleans, tried be- fore Gen. Butler and sentenced to death, but escaped prison and wandered in the Orient for many years, until the death sentence expired of inanition. Then he went to Memphis and was associated with
.Mbert Pike, and later with James M. Keating, on the old "Appeal" newspaper, finally removing to St. Louis, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was a Government expert in the "embalmed beef" investigation. It was while carrying out a series of scientific inves- tigations that an insect flew into his right eye, causing loss of sight in that member. He dietl on May 19, 1907, of erysipelas.
The Med. lierald, Sept., 1907.
St. Louis Med. and Surg. Jour., 1894, vol.
James, Thomas Chalkley (1766-1835) Thomas Chalkley James was born in Philadelphia, August 31, 1766, and was the youngest son. The ancestors of Dr. James were originally from England, and on both sides were connected with the Society of Friends. His father, Mr. Abel James, was for many years one of the leading merchants in Phila- delphia.
James was well educated after the manner of Friends, especially at their school, under the superintendance of Robert Proud, the historian of Penn- sylvania. James studied medicine under the direction of Dr. Adam Kuhn, a disciple of Linneus, whose opinion always carried weight among his med- ical brethren, and who had the honor of educating some of the first physicians of our country. In 1787, at the age of twenty-one, he received the certifi- cate of bachelor in medicine from the University of Pennsylvania.
When in London, in 1790, he found his countryman and fellow student. Dr. P. S. Physick, a pupil and an assist- ant of the celebrated Mr. John Hunter, pursuing his studies in St. George's Hospital. By Physick's advice. Dr. James • entered (May 30, 1791) as a house pupil of the Story Street Lying-in Hospital under the care of Drs. Osborne and John Clarke, the two leading ob- stetric teachers in London. There he had soon the pleasure of receiving as companion, his friend Dr. J. Cathrall,