For Europe (Holland)
of attempt to mobilise the pacifist armies (November). The latter of these contains ideas which agree in many cases with those of the Union of Democratic Control (the abolition of secret diplomacy, and a larger control of foreign affairs by Parliaments; the prohibition of special armament industries; the establishment of the elementary principle of international law, that no country shall be annexed without the consent, freely expressed, of the population). I will content myself here with publishing the manifesto addressed to the thinkers, writers, artists, and scientists of all nations. In this manifesto we shall find support for the tasks which we ourselves have undertaken in working to keep the thought of Europe sheltered from the ravages of the war, and in continually recalling it to the recognition of its highest duty, which is, even in the worst storms of passion, to safeguard the spiritual unity of civilized humanity.
February 7, 1915.
NEDERLANDSCHE ANTI-OORLOG RAAD
Immediately after the European war had broken out, several groups of intellectuals be-