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fluence. The Jesuits in their missionary tours among the Hurons early in the 17th century made note of the cofraternities among the tribes of Canada. In later years the publications of several learned societies and institutions have given us the records of ethnologists and anthropologists by which we learn of the very great number of native societies, associations and fraternities. We cannot mention them all, but it would be a mistake not to call attention to the fraternities of the Zuni and other pueblo dwelling peoples. These had elaborate lodge rooms or kivas and their altars were decorated and dedicated to the powers of nature. They taught their initiates the philosophies of their respective cults and exacted certain promises and obligations. Among the Pawnees were a number of important societies, one of the most important being the Hako. The Navahos had their cults and the Ojibwa of the north had their Mide Wiwin. Likewise the Iroquois had and still have their Ho-noh-che-noh-gaah, their Ha-dih-dos and their Society of Charm Holders, and many others.

The Indians in some instances drew moral lessons and analogies from the art of building their long houses and other dwellings, but for the most part their symbolism was drawn from the study of the Temple of Nature. They knew of no Hebrew legends or records, and the names of Zerubbabel, Solomon, Hiram of Tyre, or of Aaron were strange to them.

On the other hand, there were societies that used sacred words, some of which might be mentioned only at low breath and some never except within the lodge. Because of the secrecy and sacredness of the meaning of some words they lost their meaning and were used

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