period of this academy was from 1873 to 1882. Among its most illustrious deceased members may be mentioned Father Secchi, S.J., Monsignor Balan, and Michele Stefano De Rossi. The Academy, now in its decline, is attached to the Church of the Santi Apostoli.
Regia Accademia Medica.—It was founded in 1875 for the study of medical and cognate sciences, has fifty ordinary members, and is located in the University.
Pontificia Accademia di Conferenze Storico-Giuridiche.—This academy was founded in 1878 to encourage among Catholics the study of history, archæology, and jurisprudence. In 1880 it began to publish a quarterly entitled "Studi e Documenti di Storia e di Diritto", highly esteemed for its learned articles and for its publication of important documents with apposite commentaries. After an existence of twenty-five years this review ceased to appear at the end of 1905. The president of the Academy is a cardinal, and it holds its meetings in the Roman Seminary.
Pontificia Accademia Romana di San Tommaso di Aquino.—When Leo XIII at the beginning of his pontificate undertook the restoration of scholastic philosophy and theology, this academy was founded (1880) for the diffusion of Thomistic doctrine. Its president is a cardinal, and its meetings are held in the Roman Seminary.
Academic Schools of Rome.—The following is a brief account of the several academic schools mentioned above. One is ecclesiastical, the others are devoted to the fine arts. Some are Roman, and others are foreign:—
Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici.—It was founded in 1701 by Clement XI, to prepare for the diplomatic service of the Holy See a body of men trained in the juridical sciences and in other requisite branches of learning. At the time, European diplomacy was usually confided to the nobility; hence the Academy was instituted and maintained for noble ecclesiastics. However, later, it opened its doors more freely to the sons of families in some way distinguished and in comfortable circumstances. Occasionally this academy languished, especially in the first half of the nineteenth century, but since then it has recovered and has steadily improved. Of late it has become a school of higher ecclesiastical education, with an eye to a diplomatic career for its students. This, however, does not imply that all its students, or even a majority of them, are destined for that career; indeed, the school tends constantly to set aside its earlier limitation. The academic course includes ecclesiastical diplomacy, political economy, diplomatic forms (stile diplomatico), the principal foreign languages, and, in addition, a practical course (after the manner of apprenticeship) at the bureaux of various congregations for such students as wish to prepare themselves for an office in any of these bodies. As a rule, Romans are not admitted to this academy, it having been expressly designed for those who, not being Romans, would have no other opportunity to acquire such a peculiar education and training. Its students pay a monthly fee. It has a cardinal-protector and a Roman prelate for president (rector). It owns and occupies its own palace (70, Piazza della Minerva).
The Roman Academies in the service of the fine arts are the following: Regia Accademia Romana di San Luca (Accademia delle Belle Arti). This academy exhibits the evolution of the Roman corporation of artist-painters, reformed under Sixtus V (1577) by Federigo Zuccari and Girolamo Muziano. It took then the title of academy, and had for its purpose the teaching of the fine arts, the reward of artistic merit, and the preservation and illustration of the historic and artistic monuments of Rome. In respect of all these it enjoyed papal approval and encouragement. It rendered great services and counted among its members illustrious masters and pupils. In 1870 it passed under the control of the new government, and is now under the patronage of the King. It possesses a gallery of paintings and an excellent library, open to the public (44, Via Bonella).
Regia Accademia di Santa Cecilia (Accademia di Musica). Pierluigi da Palestrina and G. M. Nanini founded in 1570 a school of music that was later (1583) canonically erected into a confraternity, or congregation, by Gregory XIII. The popes encouraged this association as an ideal instrument for the dissemination of good taste and the promotion of musical science. Urban VIII decreed that no musical works should be published without the permission of the censors of this congregation, and that no school of music or of singing should be opened in any church without the written permission of its deputies. This very rigorous ordinance provoked numerous complaints from interested parties, and its restrictions were soon much neglected. In 1684 Innocent XI conceded to the congregation the right to admit even foreign members, and in 1774 women were admitted as members. Owing to the political troubles of the period, the congregation was suspended from 1799 to 1803, and again from 1809 to 1822. Among its members have been illustrious musicians. We may mention, besides the above-named founders, Carissimi; Frescobaldi, the organist; Giuseppe Tartini, violinist and author of a new system of harmony; the brothers Fede, celebrated singers; and Muzio Clementi, pianist. From 1868 John Sgambati and Ettore Finelli taught gratuitously in this academy. Since 1870 the congregation of St. Cecilia has been transformed into a Royal Academy. In 1876 the "Liceo di Musica" was added to it, with a substantial appropriation from the funds of the province and city of Rome. In 1874 the statutes of this school were remodelled. It is greatly esteemed and is much frequented (18, Via dei Greci).
Accademia di Raffaele Sanzio.—This is a school of modern foundation, with daily and evening courses for the study of art (504, Corso Umberto I).
There are several foreign academies of a scholastic kind. The American Academy, founded in 1896, is located in the Villa del' Aurora (42, Via Lombardi). The Académie de France was founded by Louis XIV in 1666. This illustrious school has given many great artists to France. Its competitive prize (Prix de Rome) is very celebrated: It owns and occupies its own palace, the Villa Medici on the Pincio. The English Academy was founded in 1821, and possesses a notable library (53, B Via Margutta). The Accademia di Spagna was founded in 1881 (32, B Piazza San Pietro in Montorio). Finally, it should be noted that, as formerly, there are now in Rome various associations which are true academies and may be classed as such, though they do not bear that name.
Societá di Conferenze di Sacra Archeologia (founded in 1875 by Giambattista De Rossi). Its name is well merited, expressing as it does the active contributions of its members. In each conference are announced or illustrated new discoveries and important studies are presented. The meetings are held monthly, from November to March and are open to the public. This excellent association has done much to popularize the study of Christian archæology, especially the study of the Roman catacombs. Its proceedings are published annually in the "Nuovo Bulletino di Sacra Archeologia". Its sessions are held in the palace of the Cancelleria Apostolica.
Circolo Giuridico di Roma.—It was founded in