Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/121

There was a problem when proofreading this page.

word—stanza, like oikos, having an architectural value). These oikoi are alternately longer and shorter, and their initial letters form a Greek abecedary. The last (a shorter) one, beginning with the letter omega, reads:

"O Mother, worthy of all hymn-tributes, who didst bring forth the Word, Most Holy of all the holy, accept the present offering, deliver all from every evil, and save from future suffering all who cry to thee. Alleluia."

This Alleluia follows each one of the shorter stanzas. The longer ones begin with a sentence of about the same length, which skilfully leads up to a series of salutations beginning with "Hail." All of these longer stanzas, except the first (which has fourteen) comprise thirteen such sentences, including the last, which, as a sort of refrain, is always "Hail, maiden Spouse!" The first stanza narrates the mission of Gabriel to Mary; and his astonishment at the condescension of the Almighty is so great that he bursts forth into:

Hail, through whom joy shall shine forth!
Hail, through whom evil shall end!
Hail, restorer of fallen Adam!
Hail, redemption of Eve's tears!

—etc. The second stanza gives the questioning of Mary; the third continues it and gives the answer of Gabriel; the fourth narrates the Incarnation; the fifth the visit to Elizabeth, with a series of "Hails" prettily conceived as being translations into words of the joyful leapings of the Baptist; the sixth, Joseph's trouble of mind; the seventh, the coming of the shepherds, who begin their "Hail" very appropriately:—

Hail, Mother of the Lamb and of the Shepherd!
Hail, Sheepfold of rational sheep!

In the ninth stanza the Magi, startled, cry out in joy:

Hail, Mother of the unwestering Star!
Hail, Splendour of the mystic Day!

In the tenth the Magi return home to announce Alleluia; the eleventh has appropriate allusions to the Flight into Egypt:

Hail, Sea that didst overwhelm the wise Pharaoh!
Hail, Rock that gavest life to the thirsty!

—with other references to the cloud, the pillar of fire, the manna, etc. The twelfth and thirteenth deal with Simeon; the fourteenth and twenty-second are more general in character; the twenty-third perhaps consciously borrows imagery from the Blachernian Church of the Deipara and perhaps also alludes distantly to the victory (or to the three victories) commemorated in the Lesson:—

Hail, Tabernacle of God and the Word!
Hail, unshaken Tower of the Church!
Hail, inexpugnable Wall!
Hail, through whom trophies are lifted up!
Hail, through whom enemies fall down!
Hail, healing of my body!
Hail, safety of my soul!

P.G., XCII, has the works of Pisides and the Acathistus with much comment; Sophocles, Greek Lexicon, etc., has an interesting note; Leclercq, in Dict. d'archéol. chrét. et de lit., gives an extensive bibliography.

Acca, City on Coast of Palestine. See St. Jean d'Acre.

Acca, Saint, Bishop of Hexham, and patron of learning (c. 660–742). Acca was a Northumbrian by birth and began life in the household of a certain Bosa, who afterwards became Bishop of York. After a few years, however, Acca attached himself to St. Wilfrid and remained his devoted disciple and companion in all his troubles. He may have joined Wilfrid as early as 678, and he certainly was with him at the time of his second journey to Rome in 692. On their return to England, when Wilfrid was reinstated at Hexham, he made Acca abbot of St. Andrew's monastery there; and after Wilfrid's death (709) Acca succeeded him as bishop. The work of completing and adorning the churches left unfinished by St. Wilfrid was energetically carried on by his successor. In ruling the diocese and in conducting the services of the Church, Acca was equally zealous. He brought to the North a famous cantor named Maban, who had learned in Kent the Roman traditions of psalmody handed down from St. Gregory the Great through St. Augustine.

He was famed also for his theological learning, and for his encouragement of students by every means in his power. It was at Acca's instigation that Eddius undertook the Life of St. Wilfrid, and above all, it was to the same kind friend and patron that Bede dedicated several of his most important works, especially those dealing with Holy Scripture. For some unexplained reason Acca was driven from his diocese in 732. He is believed to have retired to Withern in Galloway, but he returned to Hexham before his death in 742, when he was at once revered as a Saint. Two crosses of exquisite workmanship, one of which is still preserved in a fragmentary state, were erected at the head and foot of his grave. When the body of the Saint was translated, the vestments were found entire, and the accounts of his miracles were drawn up by St. Ælred and by Simeon of Durham. Of any true liturgical cultus there is little trace, but his feast is said to have been kept on 20 October. There is also mention of 19 February, which may have been the date of some translation of his relics.

The only writing of Acca's which we possess is a letter addressed to St. Bede and printed in his works. This document, together with much other material relating to Acca, has also been printed in Raine's Priory of Hexham (London, 1864), Surtees Society, 1864. Our knowledge of Acca's life is derived primarily from Bede, Eddius, Simeon of Durham, Richard of Durham, and Ælred. Adequate accounts may be also found in Stanton's English Menology (London, 1892), 507; Dict. of Nat. Biog.; Dict. of Christ. Biog. For some archæological sidelights, cf. Browne (Anglican Bishop), Theodore and Wilfrith (London, 1897).

Acca of Galloway. See St. Acca.

Accad. See Babylonia.

Accaron (Ekron), the most northern of t he five principal Philistine cities (Jos. xiii, 3; xv, 11, 46). We do not know whether it was founded by the Philistines or the Hevites. It was first given to the tribe of Juda