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conspired with the Saracens and other enemies of Christianity; of being guilty of the death of the King of Bavaria, and of giving his daughter in marriage to a schismatic; of not paying tribute for Sicily, which is the patrimony of St. Peter. For these and for other crimes, Innocent IV, by this apostolic letter, declares Frederick unworthy to rule, and his subjects freed from their duty of obedience to him as sovereign.

Bullar. Roman. (ed., Turin, 1858), III, 510–516; Mansi, Coll. Conc., XXIII, 613–619; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, V, 1125; Rohrbacher, Hist. univ. de l'église, IX, 14–16.

Ad Limina Apostolorum, an ecclesiastical term meaning a pilgrimage to the sepulchres of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome, i.e. to the Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles and to the Basilica of St. Paul "outside the walls".

Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem.—This letter was issued by Alexander VII, and is dated at Rome, 16 October, 1656, the second year of his pontificate. It is a confirmation of the Constitution of Innocent X, by which he condemned five propositions taken from the work entitled "Augustinus" of Cornelius Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres. The letter opens with an explanation of the reason for its publication. It observes that, although what has already been defined in the Apostolic Constitutions needs no confirmation by any future decisions, yet, since some try to cast doubt upon these definitions or to neutralise their effort by false interpretations, the apostolic authority must not defer using a prompt remedy against the spread of the evil. The letter then refers to the decision of Innocent X, and quotes the words of its title in order to show that it was a decision for all the faithful. But as a controversy had arisen, especially in France, on five propositions taken from the "Augustinus", several French bishops submitted them to Alexander VII for a clear, definite decision. The letter thus enumerates these five propositions: (1) There are some divine precepts which are impossible of observance by just men willing and trying to observe them according to their present strength; the grace also is wanting to them, by which those precepts are possible. (2) In the state of fallen nature interior grace is not resisted. (3) For merit and demerit, in the state of fallen nature, libertas a necessitate (liberty to choose) is not necessary for man; libertas a coactione (freedom from external compulsion) is enough. (4) The Semipelagians admitted the necessity of interior preventing grace (prævenientis gratiæ interioris) for each and every act, even for the beginning of faith (initium fidei); and in that they were heretical, inasmuch as they held that grace to be such as the human will could resist or obey. (5) It is Semipelagian to say that Christ died, or shed His blood for all men.

The letter then goes on to declare that, those five propositions having been submitted to due examination each was found to be heretical. The letter repeats each proposition singly, and formally condemns it. It next declares that the decision binds all the faithful, and enjoins on all bishops to enforce it, and adds, "We are not to be understood, however, by making this declaration and definition on those five propositions, as at all approving other opinions contained in the above-named book of Cornelius Jansenius." Moreover, since some still insisted that those propositions were not to be found in the "Augustinus", or were not meant by the author in the sense in which they were condemned, the letter furthermore declares that they are contained in the "Augustinus", and have been condemned according to the sense of the author.

Bullarium Romanum (ed. Turin, 1869), XVI, 245–247.

Ad Universalis Ecclesiæ, a papal constitution dealing with the conditions for admission to religious orders of men in which solemn vows are prescribed. It was issued by Pius IX, 7 February, 1862. This Pope had issued from time to time various decrees: e.g. "Romani Pontifices" (25 January, 1848), "Regulari Disciplinæ" (for Italy and adjacent isles, 25 January, 1848), and "Neminem Latet" (19 March, 1857). These three decrees found their completion and perfection in the constitution, "Ad Universalis Ecclesiæ." It marks a distinct departure from the Tridentine law, both as to the necessary age and other requirements for admission of men to solemn vows in orders, congregations, and institutes, old and new, in which solemn vows are prescribed. The immediate occasion of its promulgation was the settlement, once and forever, of doubts which had arisen and been presented to the Holy See about the validity of solemn vows made without due observance of the decree, "Neminem Latet", i.e. without the three years' profession of simple vows. It gives the reason of the "Neminem Latet" regulation, which was to safeguard the religious orders, congregations, and institutes from losing their genuine spirit and former excellence by hastily and imprudently admitting youths having no true vocation or of whose lives, morals, bodily and mental endowments, no proper investigation had been made and no testimonial to the aforesaid had been requested of, or received from, the bishop of their native place, or of the places where they had sojourned for the year immediately preceding their admission to the house of postulants. This the "Neminem Latet" accomplished by decreeing that novices after the completion of their probation and novitiate and, if clerics, of the sixteenth year of their age (prescribed by the Council of Trent), or of a more advanced age, if the rule of their order approved by the Holy See required it, if lay brothers, the age fixed by Pope Clement VIII (in Suprema), should make profession of simple vows for the term of three full years; and after the completion of said term, to be computed from day of profession to the last hour of the third year, if found worthy, they were to be admitted to solemn profession, unless their superiors, for just and reasonable cause, postponed the solemn profession; such postponement being prohibited beyond the twenty-fifth year of age, except in the orders and countries where a longer term of simple profession was conceded by special indult of the Holy See. The Pope says that, nevertheless, novices had been admitted to solemn profession without the three years' simple vows, thereby giving great cause for doubt concerning the validity of said solemn profession; and a decision upon that matter was requested from the Holy See. As the "Neminem Latet" said not a word about the nullity of solemn profession made in opposition to its regulation, the solemn profession made without the prescribed three years of simple vows was valid, though illicit. This was decided later (S. Cong. on State of Regulars, 16 August, 1866).

"We, therefore," declares Pius IX in this constitution, "in a matter of such great importance, desiring to remove all occasion of future doubt, of Our own motion and certain knowledge, and in the plenitude of Our Apostolic power as regards the religious communities of men of whatever order, congregation, or institution in which solemn vows are made, do determine and decree to be null and void and of no value the profession of solemn vows, knowingly or ignorantly, in any manner, colour or pretext, made by novices or lay brothers, who, although they had completed the Tridentine probation and novitiate, had not previously made profession of simple vows and remained in that profession for the entire three years, even though the superiors, or they, or both respectively, had the in-