Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/164

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

of Tarsus and the patriarch of Antioch. In the Middle Ages the Greek hierarchy disappeared, and is now represented in Cilicia by only one prelate who styles himself Metropolitan of Tarsus and Adana, and resides in the latter town. Most of his diocesans are foreigners, and come from Cappadocia or the Archipelago. They are much attached to Hellenism, and desire to be under the patriarchate of Constantinople and not of Antioch. They even live in open strife with the latter, since the election (1899) of an Arabic-speaking prelate. In medieval times Adana, deprived of a Greek bishop, had an Armenian one, subject to the Catholicos of Sis. The first of this line known to history is a certain Stephen, who distinguished himself in 1307 and 1316. Under him a great national Armenian council (the last of its kind), attended by the patriarch and the king, the clergy and the nobility, was held at Adana (1316). Thirty years earlier, in 1286, another Armenian council met for forty days in Adana for the purpose of electing the Catholicos Constantine and to dispose of several other questions. Today the Armenians of Adana are divided into Gregorians, Catholics, and Protestants. For the Gregorians it is the centre of one of the fourteen or fifteen districts governed by the Catholicos of Sis; he is represented in Adana by a bishop. For the Catholics there is an episcopal see at Adana. As regards Protestants, Adana is a mission station of the Central Turkey Mission of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (about 1,000 members). The Reformed Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) holds it as a missionary station attended from Tarsus. There are, moreover, at Adana some Maronite and Syrian merchants and some Europeans employed in various capacities. The total population amounts to about 45,000 inhabitants during the two or three months when the decortication and the cleaning of cotton attract a great many workers. During the rest of the year the population does not exceed 30,000 inhabitants, viz.: 14,000 Mussulmans, 12,575 Armenians, 3,425 Greeks, and a few others. There are in the town 18 mosques, 37 medresses, and 8 tekkes, 2 Armenian churches, 1 Latin church, 1 Greek church, and 1 Protestant church; 29 Turkish schools of which 28 are elementary schools and one is secondary, 2 Greek schools, 1 Armenian school, 1 Protestant school, and 2 French educational establishments—one for boys directed by the Jesuit Fathers, the other for girls, under the Sisters of St. Joseph of Lyons. The latter includes a day-school and a boarding-school.

Adar.—(1) A frontier town in the South of Chanaan (Num., xxxiv, 4; Jos., xv, 3). It has not been identified. (2) King of Edom, Gen., xxxvi, 39, called Adad (R. V., Hadad), I Par., i, 50. (3) The twelfth month of the Jewish year, corresponding approximately to the latter half of February and the first half of March. (4) A Chaldean god. The name is found in the compound word Adramelech (Adar is Wing) in IV K., xvii, 31.

Adda, Ferdinando d', Cardinal and Papal Legate, b. at Milan, 1649; d. at Rome, 1719. He was made Cardinal-Priest in 1690, and in 1715 Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. He was also Prefect of the Congregation of Rites. As Papal Nuncio in London during the reign of James II (1685–88) he was charged by Innocent XI with the delicate task of inducing the English King to intercede with Louis XIV (then quite inimical to the Holy See) in favour of the oppressed Protestants of France.

Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali (Rome, 1793), VIII, 7.

Addas, one of the three original disciples of Manes (q.v.), who according to the Acts of Archelaus introduced the heretical teachings of Manes into Scythia and later went on a similar mission to the East, being also commissioned to collect Christian books. He is called Baddas by Cyril of Jerusalem. Photius refers to a work of his (Biblioth. Cod. 85) entitled "Modion" (Mark, iv, 21) which was refuted by Diodorus of Tarsus. A work against Moses and the Prophets by Addas and Adimantus is also mentioned.

Cowell in Dict. of Christ. Biogr., I, 43.

Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of.—This is an Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group because it is written in the Syriac tongue; sometimes to the Persian group because it was used in Mesopotamia and Persia. It is known as the normal liturgy of the Nestorians, but probably it had been in use before the rise of the Nestorian heresy. According to tradition, it was composed by Addeus and Maris, who evangelized Edessa, Seleucia-Ctesiphon and the surrounding country. This tradition is based on the narrative contained in the "Doctrine of Addai", a work generally ascribed to the second half of the third century. The account states that King Abgar the Black, having heard of the wonderful works of Christ, besought Our Lord to come and cure him of a serious malady, but that he obtained only the promise that Our Lord would send one of His disciples, a promise which was fulfilled after the ascension, when Thaddeus (in Syriac, Addai), one of the seventy-two disciples, was sent by St. Thomas to Edessa to cure the King. Addeus and his disciple Maris are said to have converted the King and people of Edessa, to have organized the Christian Church there, and to have composed the liturgy which bears their names. There seem to be no documents earlier than the "Doctrine of Addai" to confirm this tradition. Although good historical evidence concerning the foundation of the Church of Edessa is wanting, still it is quite certain that Christianity was introduced there at a very early date, since towards the end of the second century the king was a Christian, and a bishop (Palouth) of the see was consecrated by Serapion of Antioch (190–203). It was only natural that the Edessans should regard Addeus and Maris as the authors of their liturgy, since they already regarded these men as the founders of their Church. The Nestorians attribute the final redaction of the text of the Liturgy of Addeus and Maris to their patriarch Jesuyab III, who lived about the beginning of the seventh century. After the condemnation of Nestorianism, the Nestorians retreated into the Persian kingdom, and penetrated even into India and China, founding churches and introducing their liturgy wherever the Syriac language was used. At the present time this liturgy is used chiefly by the Nestorians, who reside for the most part in Kurdistan. It is also used by the Chaldean Uniats of the same region, but their liturgy has, of course, been purged of all traces of Nestorian tenets. Finally, it is in use among the Chaldean Uniats of Malabar, but it was very much altered by the Synod of Diamper held in 1599.

Exposition of Parts.—The liturgy may be divided conveniently into two parts: the Mass of the catechumens, extending as far as the offertory, when the catechumens were dismissed, and the Mass of the faithful, embracing all from the offertory to the end. Or again, it may be divided into the preparation for the sacrifice extending as far as the preface, and the anaphora or formula for consecration corresponding to the Roman canon. "The order of the Liturgy of the Apostles, composed by Mar Addai and Mar Mari, the blessed Apostles" begins with the sign of the cross, after which the verse "Glory to God in the highest" etc. (Luke, ii, 14), the Lord's Prayer, and a prayer for the priest on