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ADONAI
ADONIAS
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envious monks of Prüm conceived an implacable hatred against Ado, and upon the death of Markward, turned him out of their monastery. With the permission of his abbot, Ado now made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he remained five years. He then went to Ravenna, where he discovered an old Roman martyrology which served as the basis for his own renowned martyrology published in 858, which is generally known as the "martyrology of Ado". At Lyons he was received with open arms by the Archbishop, St. Remigius, who, with the consent of the Abbot of Ferrières, appointed him pastor of the Church of St. Roman near Vienne. In 860 he became Archbishop of Vienne, and a year later received the pallium from Nicholas I. By word and example he began reforming the laxity of his priests, and he gave them strict orders to instruct the laity in the necessary doctrines of Christianity. His own life was a model of humility and austerity. When Lothaire II, King of Lorraine, had unjustly dismissed his wife Theutberga and the papal legates at the Synod of Metz had been bribed to sanction the King's marriage to his concubine Waldrada, Ado hastened to Rome, and reported the crime to the Pope, who thereupon annulled the acts of the synod. Besides the "Martyrology" mentioned above Ado wrote a chronicle from the beginning of the world to a.d. 874, "Chronicon de VI ætatibus mundi", and the lives of St. Desiderius and St. Theuderius. Ado's name is in the Roman martyrology and at Vienne his feast is celebrated on 16 December, the day of his death.

Butler, Lives of the Saints, 16 Dec.; for his praise Mabillon, Acta SS. Ord. S. Bened. (1680), IV (2), 262–275; Ebert, Gesch. der lat. Litt. des Mittelalters (1880), II, 384–387; Lechner, Martyrologium des Benediktiner-Ordens (Augsburg, 1858); H. Achelis, Die Martyrologien ihre Geschichte und ihr Wert (Berlin, 1900). For his martyrology P.L., CXXIII, 9 sqq.

Adonai (אדני), lord, ruler, is a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament. It is retained in the Vulgate and its dependent versions, Exod., vi, 3; Judith, xvi, 16. No other name applied to God is more definite and more easily understood than this. Etymologically it is the plural of Adon, with the suffix of the possessive pronoun, first person, singular number. This plural has been subjected to various explanations. It may be looked upon as a plurale abstractum, and as such it would indicate the fullness of divine sway and point to God as the Lord of lords. This explanation has the endorsement of Hebrew grammarians, who distinguish a plurale virium, or virtutum. Others prefer to designate this form as plurale excellentiæ, magnitudinis, or plurale majestatis. To look upon it as a form of politeness such as the German Sie for du, or French volts for to is certainly not warranted by Hebrew usage. The possessive pronoun has no more significance in this word than it has in Rabbi (my master), Monsieur, or Madonna. Adonai is also the perpetual substitute for the ineffable Name Yahve, to which it lends its vowel signs. Whenever therefore, the word Yahve occurs in the text, the Jew will read Adonai.

Kautzsch-Gesenius, Hebræische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1896); Dalman, Der Gottesname and seine Geschichte (Berlin l889); Stade, Biblische Theologie des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1905).

Adonias, Hebrew: 'Adoniyah', 'Adoniyahuh, Yahweh is Lord; Septuagint: Ἀδωνιάς.—I. Adonias, fourth son of King David, was born in Hebron, during his father's sojourn in that city (III Kings, i, 4, 5; I Paralip., iii, 1. 2). Nothing is known of his mother, Haggith, except her name. Nothing is known; likewise, of Adonias himself until the last days of his father's reign, when he suddenly appears as a competitor for the Jewish crown. He was then thirty-five years old, and of comely appearance (III Kings, i, 6). Since the death of Absalom he ranked next in succession to the throne in the order of birth, and as the prospect of his father's death was now growing near, he not unnaturally cherished the hope of securing the succession. A younger son of David, Solomon, however, stood in the way of his ambition. The aged monarch had determined to appoint as his successor this son of Bethsabee, in preference to Adonias, and the latter was well aware of the fact. Yet, relying on his father's past indulgence, and still more on his present weakened condition, Adonias resolved to seize the throne, without, however, arousing any serious opposition. At first he simply set up a quasi-royal state, with chariots, horses, and fifty running footmen. As this open profession of his ambition did not meet with a rebuke from the too indulgent King, he proceeded a step farther. He now strove to win to his cause the heads of the military and the religious forces of the nation, and was again successful in his attempt. Joab, David's oldest and bravest general and Abiathar, the ablest and most influential high-priest in David's reign, agreed to side with him. It was only then that, surrounded by a powerful party, he ventured to take what was practically the last step towards the throne. He boldly invited to a great banquet in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem all his adherents and all his brothers, except of course Solomon, to have himself proclaimed king. The sacrificial feast took place near the fountain Rogel, southeast of the Holy City, and everything seemed to presage full success. It is plain, however, that Adonias had misconceived the public feeling and over-estimated the strength of his position. He had formidable opponents in the prophet Nathan, the high priest Sadoc, and Banaias, the valiant head of the veteran bodyguard; and in going away from Jerusalem he had left the weak old king subject to their united influences. Quick to seize the opportunity, Nathan prevailed upon Bethsabee to remind David of his promise to nominate Solomon as his successor, and to acquaint him with Adonias's latest proceedings. During her interview with the aged ruler Nathan himself entered, confirmed Bethsabee's report, and obtained for her David's solemn reassertion that Solomon should be king. Acting with a surprising vigour, David summoned at once to his presence Sadoc, Nathan, and Banaias, and bade them take Solomon upon the royal mule to Gihon (probably "the Virgin's Fountain"), and there to anoint and proclaim the son of Bethsabee as his successor. His orders were promptly complied with; the anointed Solomon returned to Jerusalem amidst the enthusiastic cheers of the people, and took solemn possession of the throne.

Meanwhile, Adonias' banquet had quietly proceeded to its end, and his guests were about to proclaim him king, when a blare of trumpets sounded in their ears, causing Joab to wonder what it might mean. Suddenly, Jonathan, Abiathar's son, entered and gave a detailed account of all that had been done in Gihon and in the Holy City. Whereupon all the conspirators took to flight. To secure immunity, Adonias fled to the altar of holocausts, raised by his father on Mount Moria, and clung to its horns, acknowledging Solomon's royal dignity, and begging for the new king's oath that his life should be spared. Solomon simply pledged his word that Adonias should suffer no hurt, provided that he would henceforth remain loyal in all things. This was indeed a magnanimous promise on the part of Solomon, for in the East Adonias's attempt to seize the throne was punishable with death. Thus conditionally pardoned, Adonias left the altar, did obeisance to the new monarch, and withdrew safely home (III Kings, i, 5–53).

It might be naturally expected that after this