Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/192

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ADULLAM
ADULTERATION
162

ous years of his middle and later life. Yet no obstacles could cause him to waver in the work of spreading the light of faith. From Cochin China he returned to Manila, and went thence to Spain (1603) in the interests of the missions. After two years spent in recruiting suitable missionaries, he sailed for the Philippines in 1605. He had already (1595) been made prior of the Dominican convent and rector of the College of San Tomás. In 160S, he was called again to Spain to act as Procurator in the interests of his order, and he began here his famous history of the Dominican Province of the Philippines, one of the most important sources of early Spanish history in the islands. It throws much light on the relations of Church and State in the Philippines. The civil governors of the islands, often unscrupulous men, bent on enslaving and demoralizing the natives, had put these relations in a false light. The work of Fra Diego exhibits truthfully the constant checks which the religious orders put upon the rapacity of the Spanish seekers of wealth. His principal works are "Relación de muchos cristianos que han decidido por la fe católica en el Japón desde el año 1616 haste el de 1628" (Manila, 1632, 1640); "Relación de algunas entradas que han hecho los religiosos de la orden de Predicadores de la provincia del Santo Rosario" (Manila, 1638); "Historia de la provincia del Santisimo Rosario de Filipinas, Japón y Chyna" (Manila, 1640, and Saragossa, 1693); "Relación de los gloriosos martirios de seis religiosos de San Domingo de la provincia del Santo Rosario" (Manila, 1634; Valladolid, 1637), a rare and curious work.

Touron, Hist. des hommes illustres de l'ordre de S. Dominique, s.v.; Dice, Enciclop. Hispano-Americana, s.v.; Blair and Robertson, Collection of Documents relating to the Philippine Islands (vols. XXX–XXXII).

Adullam, Hebr. 'Ădhúllām, Sept. Ὀδολλάμ Vulg. Odollam, but Adullam in Jos., xv, 35.—(1) A Chanaanite city, to the west of Bethlehem, at the foot of the mountains of Juda. From the hands of the Chanaanites (Gen., xxxviii, 1 sqq.) it passed into the power of Juda (Jos., xii, 15; xv, 35), was fortified by Roboam (II Par., xi, 7), mentioned by the prophet Micheas (i, 15), and after the exile repeopled by Jews (II Esdr., xi, 30; II Mach., xii, 38). (2) The Cave of Adullam, the shelter of David and his followers (I K., xxii, 1,2), is situated, according to some, six miles southeast of Bethlehem, in the Wady Khareitun; but more probably near the city of Adullam.

Clermont-Ganneau and Conder, Palestine Exploration Fund, Mem., III, 301–367; Muir in Hast., Dict. of the Bible, I (New York, 1903).

Adulteration of Food (Lat. adulterare, to pollute, to adulterate). This act is defined as the addition of any non-condimental substance to a food, such substance not constituting a portion of the food. Even this carefully-worded definition is not perfect. Some kinds of salt provisions have so much salt added that some of it has to be removed by soaking, to render the food edible, yet this does not constitute adulteration. Adulteration of food has long been practised. It is mentioned in the case of bread by Pliny, who also says that difficulty was experienced in Rome in procuring pure wines. Athens had its public inspector of wines. England and France early passed laws to guard against the adulteration of bread, and as far back as the days of Edward the Confessor public punishment was provided for the brewers of bad ale. The legal status of adulteration is largely a matter of statute, varying with each governmental body which attacks the subject. Food is declared adulterated if there is added to it a substance which depreciates or injuriously affects it; if cheaper or inferior substances are substituted wholly or in part for it; if any valuable or necessary constituent has been wholly or in part abstracted; if it is an imitation; if it is coloured or otherwise treated, to improve its appearance; if it contains any added substance injurious to health. These are examples of statutory provisions. Political considerations, such as the desire to protect the food-producers of a country, may affect legislation. Thus adulteration may be so defined as to include foreign products, which otherwise might be treated as unobjectionable. Food-preservatives have a very extensive use, which often constitutes adulteration. Salt is the classic preservative, but is also a condiment, and is seldom classed as an adulterant. Salicylic, benzoic, and boric acids, and their sodium salts, formaldehyde, ammonium fluoride, sulphurous acid and its salts are among the principal preservatives. Many of these appear to be innocuous, but there is danger that the continued use of food preserved by their agency may be injurious. Extensive experiments on this subject have been performed by the United States Bureau of Chemistry and by the German Imperial Board of Health, among others. Some preservatives have been conclusively shown to be injurious when used for long periods, although their occasional use may be attended with no bad effect. Boric acid is pretty definitely condemned, after experiments on living subjects. Salicylic, sulphurous, and benzoic acids are indicated as injurious. The direct indictment against preservatives is not very strong. The principal point is that while the amount of preservative in a sample of food might be innocuous, the constant absorption of a preserving chemical by the system may have bad effects. Preservatives are often sold for household use, as for the preparation of "cold process" preserves. If really made without heat, the tendency is, on the housekeeper's part, to use a proportion of the chemical larger than that employed by the manufacturer, thus increasing any bad effect attributable to them. Colouring matters are much used. Coal-tar colours are employed a great deal, and have received legal recognition in Europe. In the United States the tendency is rather to favour vegetable colours. Pickles and canned vegetables are sometimes coloured green with copper salts; butter is made more yellow by anatta; turmeric is used in mustard and some cereal preparations. Apples are the basis for many jellies, which are coloured so as to simulate finer ones. This is an instance of the use of colouring matter fraudulently, to imitate a more expensive article. But in confectionery dangerous colours, such as chrome yellow, Prussian blue, copper and arsenic-compounds are employed. Yellow and orange-coloured candy is to be suspected. Fruit syrups, and wines, and tomato catsup are often artificially colored. Canned peas are especially to be suspected; often the fact that they are coloured is stated on the label. Artificial flavouring-compounds are employed in the concoction of fruit syrups, especially those used for soda water. The latter are often altogether artificial. Among this class are: pear essence (amylic and ethylic acetates); banana essence (a mixture of amyl acetate and ethyl butyrate), and others. Milk is adulterated with water, and indirectly by removing the cream. It is also a favourite subject for preservatives. The latter are condemned partly because they render extreme cleanliness less necessary, for milk ordinarily exacts a high degree of purity in its surroundings. The addition of water may introduce disease germs. Cream is adulterated with gelatin, and formaldehyde is employed as a preservative for it. Butter is adulterated to an enormous extent with oleomargarine, a product of beef fat. It is a lawful product, but it is required by many enactments that its presence in butter be indicated on the package. Lard is another adulterant of butter. Cheese is made from skim-milk some