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These came into the possession of the Benedictine, Veremund Daens, who, in 1838, began a new foundation at Termonde, which was transferred in 1869 to Afflighem. The first abbot of the old abbey was Fulgentius (1088–1122). Among the more prominent of his successors may be mentioned Franco, (1122–35), the author of twelve books "De Gratiâ" (P.L., CLXVI), Albert, whose devotion to Our Lady won him the title Abbas Marianus, and Benedict Haeften, the author of several works of art.

Heigl, in Kirchenlex., I, 296; Pitra, Notre Dame d'Afflighem, in Revue Catholique (Louvain, 1849), B. III, 425–431, 457–468; Studien u. Mittheil. in Cisters. Orden (1887), VIII, 423–427 (for the new Abbey).

Affranchisement. See Manumission of Christian Slaves.

Affre, Denis Auguste, Archbishop of Paris, b. at St. Rome-de-Tam, in the Department of Tam, 27 September, 1793; d. in Paris, 27 June, 1848. At the age of fourteen he entered the seminary of Saint Sulpice, then under the direction of his uncle, Denis Boyer. He completed his studies with great credit, and spent some time as professor of philosophy in the seminary at Nantes. He was ordained a priest 16 May, 1818, and joined the Sulpician community. He was successively Vicar-General of the Dioceses of Luçon and Amiens, and was appointed Coadjutor of Strasburg in 1839.

This post, however, he never filled, being called on to act as Vicar-Capitular of Paris, conjointly with MM. Auger and Morel, at the death of Archbishop Quélen. Five months later he was nominated to the vacant see (1840). His tenure of this office was marked by a zealous devotion to the improvement of clerical studies and to the free exercise of the teaching office (liberté d'enseignement). During the insurrection of 1848 the Archbishop was led to believe that his presence at the barricades might be the means of restoring peace. He accordingly applied to General Cavaignac, who warned him of the risk he was about to incur. "My life", the Archbishop answered, "is of little value, I will gladly risk it." Soon afterwards, the firing having ceased at his request, he appeared on the barricade at the entrance to the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, accompanied by M. Albert, of the national guard, who wore the dress of a workingman, and bore a green branch as a sign of peace, and by Tellier, a devoted servant. His reception was not very favourable, and he had spoken only a few words, when the insurgents, hearing some shots, and thinking they were betrayed, opened fire on the National Guard, and the Archbishop fell. He was removed to his palace, where he died. Next day the National Assembly issued a decree expressing their great sorrow at his death. The public funeral, 7 July, was one of the most striking spectacles of its kind. Archbishop Affre wrote, in addition to his pastorals and various articles in "La France Chrétienne", "Traité de l'administration temporelle des paroisses" (Paris, 1827; 11th ed., 1890), "Traité de la propriété des biens ecclésiastiques" (Paris, 1837), "Introduction philosophique à l'étude du Christianisme" (Paris, 5th ed., 1846).

Fisquet, La France pontificale (Paris, 1867), I, 619; D'Avenel, Les évêques et archevêques de Paris (Paris, 1878), II, 264; The Biographies of De Riancey (Paris, 1848); Cruice (Paris, 1850); Castan (1864).

Afra, Saint and martyr. The city of Augusta Vindelicorum (the present Augsburg) was situated in the northern part of the Roman province of Rhætia on the river Lech, not far from its junction with the Danube. It was an important Roman colony, invested with municipal rights (municipium) by the Emperor Hadrian, into which Christianity had penetrated even before the time of Constantine, as is proved beyond question by the martyrdom of St. Afra. It is an indisputable historical fact that a Christian named Afra was beheaded at Augsburg during the persecution of Diocletian (c. 304) for her steadfast profession of faith, and that at an early period her grave was the object of great veneration. The so-called "Martyrologium Hieronymianum", a compilation from various calendars and lists of martyrs, dating in its original form from the fourth century, mentions, under date of 5 August (in some MSS., 6 or 7 August), St. Afra as having suffered in the city of Augsburg, and as buried there (Martyrologium Hieronym., ed. De Rossi and Duchesne; Acta SS., II, Nov., 1 sqq.). In his poem on St. Martin, Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers in the sixth century, also mentions Augsburg as her burial place (Vita S. Martini, IV, 642 sq.; Pergis ad Augustam quam Virdo et Lica fluentant, Illic ossa sacræ venerabere martyris Afræ). There are extant certain Acts of the martyrdom of St. Afra (Acta SS., II, August, 39 sqq.; ed. Krusch in Mon. Germ. Hist.; SS. RR. Merovingic., III, 56 sqq.), in the opinion of most critics not a coherent whole, but a compilation of two different accounts, the story of the conversion of St. Afra, and the story of her martyrdom. The former is of later origin, and has not the least claim to historical credibility, being merely a legendary narrative of Carlovingian times, drawn up with the intention of connecting with St. Afra the organization of the church of Augsburg. It relates that the grandparents of Afra came from Cyprus to Augsburg and were there initiated into the worship of Venus. Afra was given over as a prostitute to the service of the goddess by her own mother Hilaria, or Hilara. In the persecution of Diocletian, Bishop