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173; Finke, Ungedruckte Dominikanerbriefe des 13. Jahrhunderts (Paderborn, 1891); Mandonnet, in Dict. de théol. cath. (Paris, 1900); Vaughan, Life and Labours of St. Thomas Aquinas (London, 1872—abridged edition with same title, London, 1875); D'Assailly, Albert le Grand, l'ancien monde devant le nouveau (Paris, 1870); de Liechty, Albert le Grand et saint Thomas d'Aquin, ou la science au moyen âge (Paris, 1880); Drane, Christian Schools and Scholars (London, 1881); Hurter, Nomenclator, IV, 297–302; Humboldt, Cosmos (New York, 1800), passim, especially II, vi; Feret, La faculté de théologie de Paris (Paris, 1895), II, 421–441; Finke, Die Freiburger Dominikaner und Münsterbau (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1901), 2–18; Talamo, L'Aristotelismo della scholastica (Naples, 1873); Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme latin au XIIIe siècle (Freiburg, Switzerland, 1899); Jourdain, Recherches critiques sur l'âge et l'origine des traductions latines d'Aristotle (Paris, 1843), 310–358; Gonzales, Studies on the Philosophy of Albert, in Histories of Philosophy, French tr. by de Pascal (Paris, 1890); Ueberweg (tr. New York, 1890); Turner (Boston, 1903); De Wulf (Louvain, 1895); see especially Ueberweg, 2d Part (9th ed., Berlin, 1905), and de Wulf, Hist. de la philosophie médievale (2d ed., Louvain, 1905); Guttman, Die Scholastik des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts in ihrer Beziehung zum Judenthum (Breslau, 1902), iii; Pouchet, Histoire des sciences naturelles au moyen age, ou Albert le Grand et son époque considérés comme point de départ de l'école expérimentale (Paris, 1853): Bach, Des Albertus Magnus Verhältniss zu der Erkenntnisslehre der Griechen, Lateiner, Araber und Juden, (Vienna, 1881); Fellner, Albertus Magnus als Botaniker (Vienna, 1881); Joel, Verhältniss Albert des Grossen zu Moses Maimonides (Breslau, 1863); Feiler, Die Moral des Albertus Magnus (Leipzig, 1891); Schneider, Die Psychologie Alberts des Grossen (Münster, 1903); De Vitâ et Scriptia Beati Alberti Magni, in Analecta Bollandiana (1900), t. XIX, 257–284; (1901) t. XX, 273–316; (1902) t. XXII. 301–371; Ehrle, Der selige Albert der Grosse, in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, (1880) XIX, 241–258, 395–414; De Loe, Kritische Streifzüge auf dem Gebiete der Albert Magnus Forschung, in Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhrein (Cologne, 1902), LXXIV. 115–126.

Albi (Albia) The Archdiocese of, comprises the Department of the Tarn. An archiepiscopal see from 1678 up to the time of the French Revolution Albi had as suffragans the Bishops of Rodez, Castres, Vabres, Cahors, and Mende; it was not re-established until 1822, and by this new distribution it united the ancient Bishopric of Castres and had for suffragans, besides the Dioceses of Rodez (joined with Vabres) of Cahors, and of Mende, the Bishopric of Perpignan. A local tradition which dates from the twelfth century attributes the foundation of the see to St. Clarus, of African birth, who installed his disciple Anthimus as his successor, and went to Lectoure where he was beheaded. The details of this legend have caused the Bollandists to legitimately suspect its authenticity. The first bishop known to history is Diogenianus (about 406). The church at Albi is rich in mementos; it was at Vieux, in the Diocese of Albi, at the end of the fifth century, that the first monastery of the Gauls (catus sanctorum) was founded by St. Eugene, a bishop exiled from Carthage, St. Longin, and St. Vindemialis, near the tomb of St. Amarandus (martyr of the third century). From the sixth to the eighth centuries, two great families of Albi gave many saints to the Church, the Salvia family, to which belonged St. Desiderius, Bishops of Cahors, also St. Disciola, the companion of St. Radegonda; the Ansbertina family to which belonged St. Goéric and St. Sigisbald, Bishops of Metz, and the latter's sister, St. Sigolina, abbess of Traclar in the Diocese of Albi. The celebrated Cardinal de Bernis, ambassador of Louis XV, at Rome, was titular Bishop of Albi from 1764 to 1794. The memory of St. Dominic who vigorously combated the Albigensian heresy is still very fresh in the Diocese of Albi; in the vicinity of Castres there is a natural grotto containing several rooms, which is called the grotto of St. Dominic; tradition asserts that it was the retreat of the saint. The Council of Albi, in 1254, triumphed over the Albigensian heresy by organizing the Inquisition in that region. The parish church of Lautrec is said to have been founded in the time of Charlemagne. The cathedral of St. Cecilia of Albi (1282–1512) is a typical model of a fortified church; its sculptured gallery is the largest of its kind in France. The ancient Benedictine abbey of Sorèze, founded in 757, was converted into a school in 1854 under the direction of the Dominican Lacordaire. The cities of Castres and Gaillac owe their origin to the Benedictine abbeys, the first of which, it is said, was founded by Charlemagne, and the second by Raimond I, Count of Toulouse, in 960. The Archdiocese of Albi, at the end of the year 1905, contained 339,369 inhabitants, 49 first-class parishes, 447 second-class parishes, and 68 vicariates with salaries formerly paid by the State.

Gallia Christiana (Nova, 1715), I, 1–46, and 1325, and Instrumenta, 1–12, and 202; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule, II. 41, 44, and 128–130; D'Auriac, Histoire de l'ancienne cathédrale et des évéques d'Albi (Paris, 1858); Salabert, Les saints et les martyrs du diocèse d'Albi (Toulouse, Privat).

Albi, Council of.—It was held in 1254 by St. Louis on his return from his unlucky Crusade, under the presidency of Zoen, Bishop of Avignon and Papal Legate, for the final repression of the Albigensian heresy and the reformation of clergy and people. It also legislated concerning the Jews.

Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, 2d ed. (Freiburg, 1890), VI, 49–54; Mansi, XXIII, 829–852.

Albi (or Alba), Juan de, a Spanish Carthusian of the Convent Val-Christ, near Segovia, date of birth uncertain; d. 27 December, 1591. He was familiar with the Oriental languages, especially Hebrew, and had the reputation of being a skilled commentator. His work is: "Sacrarum semioseon, animadversionum et electorum ex ulriusque Testamenti lectiono commentarius et centuria" (Valencia, 1610); it was re-edited in Venice, 1613, under the title "Selectæ Annotiones in varia utriusque Testamenti loca difficiliora."

Renard in Vig. Dict. de la Bible (Paris, 1895); Antonio, Bibliotheca hispana nova (Madrid, 1783).

Albicus, Sigismund, Archbishop of Prague, a Moravian, b. at Mahrisch-Neustadt in 1347; d. in Hungary, 1427. He entered the University of Prague when quite young and took his degree in medicine in 1387. Desiring to prosecute the study of civil and canon law with more profit, he went to Italy and received the Doctor's degree in 1404, at Padua. On his return to Prague, he taught medicine for twenty years in the University. He was appointed physician-in-chief to Wenceslaus IV who recommended him as successor to the archbishopric of Prague, on the death of its incumbent in 1409. The canons appointed him to the position, although reluctantly. Albicus held it only four years, and when he resigned, in 1413, Conrail was elected in his place. Albicus received later the Priory of Wissehrad, and the title of Archbishop of Cæsarea. He was accused of favouring the new doctrines of John Huss and Wyclif. He retired to Hungary during the war of the Hussites, and died there, in 1427. He left three works on medical subjects, which were published after his deatli: "Praxis medendi"; "Regimen Sanitatis"; "Regimen pestilentiæ" (Leipzig, 1484–87).

Albigenses (from Albi, Lat. Albiga, the present capital of the Department of Tarn), a Neo-Manichæan sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The name Albigenses, given them by the Council of Tours (1163) prevailed towards the end of the twelfth century and was for a long time applied to all the heretics of the south of France. They were also called Catharists (καθαρός, pure), though in reality they were only a branch of the Catharistic movement. The rise and spread of