Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/319

This page needs to be proofread.
279

ALDEGUNDIS 279 ALDERSBACH in the name of the King, the decrees of the Coun- cil, favours the assumption that Alcuin had at least no <lirect part in the composition of the work. III. .i.rriN .s . LiTiuiiisT. — Hesides his justly merited fame as an educator and a theologian, Alcuin lia.s the honour of having been the principal agent in the great work of liturgical reform accom- plished by the authority of Charlemagne. At the accession of Charles the Gallican rite prevailetl in France, but it was so modifieil by local customs and traditions as to constitute a serious obstacle to com- plete ecclesiastical unity. It was the purpo.se of the King to substitute the Roman rite in place of the Galilean, or at least to bring about sucli a revision of the latter as to make it substantially one with the Roman. The stmng leaning of Alcuin towards the traditions of the Roman Church, combined witli his conservative cliuracter and the universal autlior- ity of his name, qualified liim for the accomplishment of a change which the royal authority in it.self was powerless to etTect. The first of Alcuin's liturgical works appears to have been a Homiliary, or collection of sermons in Latin for the use of priests. The Homiliarj' which was printed under his name in the fifteenth century was by a different hand, although it is probable, as Dom Morin contends, that a re- cently discovered MS. of the twelfth centurj' con- tains the genuine Alcuinian sermons (Revue Wn6- tlictine, 1S92). Another liturgical work of Alcuin consists of a collection of the Epistles to be read on Simdays and holy-days througnout the year, and bears the name, "Comes ab Albino ex Caroli imp. pnrcepto emendatus ". .s, previous to his time, the portions of Scripture to be read at Mass were often merely indicated on the margins of the Bibles used, the "Comes" commended itself by its convenience, and as he followed Roman usage here also, the re- sult was another advance in the way of conformity to the Roman liturgy. The work of Alcuin which had the greatest and most lasting influence in this ilirection, however, was the Sacramentarj', or Missal which he compiled, using the Gregorian Sacramen- tary as a basis, and to this adding a supplement of ma.sses and prayers drawn from Gallican and other liturgical sources. Prescribed as the official Mass- book for the Prankish Church, Alcuin's Missal soon came to be commonly used throughout Europe and was largely instrumental in bringing about uni- formity in respect to the liturgy of the Mass in the whole Western Church. Other liturgical produc- tions of Alcuin were a collection of votive Masses, drawn up for the monks of Fulda, a treatise called " l)e p.salmorum usu", a breviary for laymen, and a brief explanation of the ceremonies of Baptism. A complete edition of Alcuin's works, with the exception of some of his Epistles, is to be found in .Migne, comprising volumes C-CI of the "Patrologia l.atiiia". The text of the Migne edition was first publislied by Froben, Abbot of St. Emmeran, at Hati.sbon, in 1777, a previous and le.ss complete rditinn having been published by Duchesne at I'aris, in 1617. A critically accurate edition of the "1 Epistles" of Alcuin, together with his poem, "On the Saints of the Church at York", his Life of St. Willibrord ", and the "Life of Alcuin", composed about SJO, is found in the fourth volume of the " Bibliotheca Rerum Gernianicarum ", under the title " Monumenta .Mcuiniana", edited by Jaff^, Watteiibuch, and Duemmler (Berlin, 1873). This edition contains 293 of Alcuin's Epistles, against the '-'30 in Migne. Mon. drrm. Ilitt.; l.roum Srctio. I, II; Pnrln- Arti Carol.. I; CiA.sKolN. Alcuin. IliK l.ifr and Work (I^)nclon, 1904); Wr.sT, Ateuin ami Ihr Risr nf thr rhritilian Schoalt (.Nrw York. 18921; MtLi.iNOKR. Thr .SVAooin o/ CharUt Ihr Crrat (I^jncliin. 1877); IIavck, Kirrhmumchichlr Drultrhlandt (I.pin- liE. 1900), II: WEUSF.n, AUtiin und jriti Jahrhiimlrrt C.M eel., Vicnnu. IS81): Dcitt, Alcuin tl Ircolr dr Saint Marlin ,lc Touri (Tours, 1876); Laforet, Alcuin. retlauralrur dtS m oeeidmt tout Charlrmngnr (Ixiuvain, 1851); Monnikr, AU cuin rt ton inftucncr httirairr, rrlit/ieusr. rl politujur chrz Ut Franct (I'Bris, Ig-IS); Ukane, Chruluin .School, a,ut Sclwlort (Lonilon, 1881); Hehoer, Hitloirr dc la vuliinlc I I'un^. IhW); Hkfei.k, Concititnaetchichir (Freiburg, 1877), 111. kiinkt, in Diet, dr thiol, eaih.. n. v.; Stubdb, in Oicl. Chrut. ISioo. (Boston, 1877), I. 73-70. J. A. Burns. Aldegundis. S.int, virgin and abbess (c. 6.39-684), variously written Adelgundis, Aldcgonde, etc. She was nearly rehileil to the .Merovingian royal family. Her father and mother, after%vards honoured as St. Walbert and St. Bertilia, lived in Flanders in the province of Ilainault. .Mdegundis was urged to marry, but she chose a life of virginity and, leaving her home, received the veil from St. Aniaiidus, Bishop of Ma;istricht. Then she walked drj--sliod over the Sambre, and built on its banks a small nunnery, at a desert placed called Malbode. This foundation afterwards, under the name Maubeuge, became a famous abbey of Benedictine nuns, though at a later date these were replaced by canoncsses. St. Aldegundis' feast is kept on 30 January. There are several early Lives, but none by contemporaries. Several of these, including the tenth-century biography by HucbalcL are printed by the Bollandists (Acta SS., Jan., II. 103-1-35). BoLLANDisT.-, OS above; DuNnAR. Diet, of Saintlu Women (Lonilon, 1905), I, 41, 42; Leroy, Hittoire de Ste. Aldiyonde (Paris, 1SS3); Chevalier, Bio-bibliogr. (2d ed.), 125, 126. HeKBERT 'THlTli.STON. Aldersbach, a former Cistercian Abbey in the valley of the Vils in Lower Bavaria. It was founded in 1127 by St. Otto, B'shop of Bamberg, and the first community was composed of canons regular. The site chosen was near a church consecrated in 880 by Englmar, Bishop of Passau, in honour of St. Peter. In 1140 Egilbert, the successor of Otto, gae the foundation and a new church of Our Lady to the Cistercians, and after the departure of the canons, Abbot Sefried, with monks from Ebrach, took possession. LTnder Cistercian rule Aldersbach flourished for more than six centuries. It was famous for the rigour of its religious discipline and exerted a wide influence. From its cloisters came the first communities established at Flirsteiifeld (1263), Fiirstenzell (1274), and Gotteszell (1285). The monks cultivated the soil and devoted them- selves to the works of the ministry in their own and in the neighbouring churches dependent upon the abbey. Nor was the pursuit of learning neglected. The first abbot, Sefried. formed the nucleus of the hbrary to which valuable additions were made by his successors. Abbots and monl.s carried on their studies not only in the cloister, but also at the great universities of Paris, Vienna, Padua, Heidelberg, and Ingolstadt. Aldersbach suffered from time to time from the ravages of war. During the Thirty Years War which followed the Reformation, it was Cillaged and almost entirely abandoned. 'The li- rary, however, escaped ilestruction. and under the abbots Matthew and Gcbhard Horgcr the old r(^gime was restored. Abbot TheobaKi II repaired the injuries sustained during the wars of the Spanish and Austrian Successions. W'hen the Abbey was suppressed, 1 April, 1803, the monks numbered forty. The buildings were sold, and the .bbey church was converted into a parish church, while the monks engaged in parish work or teaching. The library became a part of the National Library' at Munich. Aldersbach was fortunate in the abbots who were chosen to rule its destinies! They main- tained monastic discipline, furthered the interests of the abbey, and encourageil the pursuit of learning. .•mong the more prominent, besides those already mcntione<l, were Dietrich I (1239-53, 12,>S-77); Conrad (130.S-,36); John II. John III, and Wolfgang Marius. The last-named is perhaps the best known.