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ALDINE 281 ALEGRE survives. The best edition of Aldhelm's works, though very unsatisfactory, is that of Dr. Giles (Oxford, 184-1). It has been reprinted in Migne (P. L., LXXXIX, S3 sqq.). Some of his letters have been edited among those of St. Uoniface in the "Mon- umenta Germauia,'" (Kpist. .evi MerovinKici, 1). Abbot Fahuhs in an i-k-vt-nlli-teiitury li]..Kru[)li.v (.l.M .SS., May (VI)]; William in- .Malml^uuhv, G'>»(,i i'u,il:,u„m. V; WlLiiMAN, Lil,- of St. Eaidlulm (London, l'M5): biiuw.sK. St. Aldhelm (London. 1903); Linoakd. Anglo-iiaion Church; MoNTALKMBERT, The Munkn uf the »'.»( dr.). V; Hunt in Dut. of Nut. Bion.: .Stubbs in Diet, of Chritl. Biog.; UiKo.v in Diet, de thfol. oilh.: Kitsnoyy, Aldhilm ton Mnlmeabunj (Dresden, 1894); SNT>VH. .1 lliatorji of Ctastticat Schotarghip (Cambridge, 1903 ). 430; M » s M 1 r,. Geitehichtf der chrUtlich-lateinUrhcn Hot sic (StullB:irt, LS'Jl '. lv.l-49l>; Sitzungtheruhtc Akud. WUn. I'hil. ffitl. el. CXII, .')3iJ-(;34; Kbkbt. Urechichle der Litlrratur des M.A. (lid el., LcipziK. 1889), I, C23-(334; Traube. Karulmi/i- schen Dirhtunt/en (Berlin, 188S); SxUungnberichte des Haj/tr. Aknd. phil. phUoloi,. cl. (Munich, 1900), 477; Khwald, Ald- helmt Gedicht de VirainivUc (Gotlm. 1904); bibliography in Chevaliek's Repertoire, etc., Bio-BilUiogr. (2U ed., Paris, 1905), 45, 46. Hekbert Thurston. Aldine Editions. See M.vnutius, .ldus. Aldric, Saint, Bishop of Le Mans in the time of Louis lo Ddbonnaire, b. c. 800; d. at Le Mans, 7 January, 8.56. As a youth he lived in the court of Charlemagne, at .i. la Chapelle, as well as in that of his son and successor Louis. By both monarchs he was highly esteemed, but when only twenty- one, he withdrew to Metz and became a priest, only to be recalled to court by Louis, who took him as the guide of his conscience. Nine years after liis ordina- tion he was made Bishop of Le Mans, and, besides being conspicuous for the most exalted virtue, was distinguished by his civic spirit in constructing aqueducts, as well as for building churches, restor- ing monasteries, ran.soming captives, etc. In the civil wars that followed the death of Louis, liis fidelity to Charles the Bald resulted in his expulsion from his see, and he withdrew to. Rome. Gregorj' IV reinstated him. With the Bishop of Paris, Erchen- rad, he, as a deputy of the Council of A la Chapelle, visited Pepin, who was then King of Aquitaine, and persuaded him to cause all the possessions of the Church which had been seized by tliose of his party to Ije restored. We find him during his lifetime taking part in the Councils of Paris and Tours. His episcopate lasted twenty-four years. Acta .S.S., I, January; Butler, Lives of the Saints, 7 January. T. J. C.VMPBELL. Aldrovandi, Ulissi, Italian naturalist, b. at Bologna, U Sept., 1522; d. there 10 Nov., 1G07. He was etlucatLnl in Bologna and Padua, received the degree of doctor of medicine (155.3) and was ap- pointed professor of natural liistory in the L^ni- versity of Bologna. t liis instigation, the Senate of that city established a botanical gartlen of which .•ldrovandi was the first director (1568). He was also made Inspector of Pharmacies, a po.sition which brought liim into conflict with the apothecaries and physicians. He appealed to Pope Gregory XIII and ■was sustained (1576). In the interest of -science, he travelletl extensively, spent a fortune, and gathered rich collections in botany and zoology which became, by his legacy, the nucleus of the Bologna Mu.seum. His herbarium is the first collection deserving the name. In his scientific work he enjoyed the patron- age of Popes Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V, and of Cardinal Montalto. lie was buried in the church of St. Steplien at Bologna, and his epitaph was written by Cardinal Barberini, afterwards Pope Urban VIII. The published works of .ldrovandi fill fourteen volumes in folio, four of which were printed during his lifetime. The rest were published in various editions between l.")99 and 1700 at Bologna, Venice, and Frankfort. These, with Aldrovandi's manu- scripts, cover the entire field of natural history, mak- ing a vast compilation which, in spite of its proli.xity, won the admiration of later naturalists like Cuvier and Buflon. Kantuzzi, Memorie delta vita d*Ulissi Aldrovandi (Bologna. 1774). K. A. Pace. Aldus Manutius. See Manutius, .i,I)Us. Alea, Lioii.NAKi), a Trench polemical writer of the early y(;irs of the nineteenth century, b. in Paris, date unknown; d. 1812. He came from a family of bankers. He published anonymously in 1801 his first book, "L'antidote de I'atli^isme , and the fol- lowing year a new edition appeared, enlarged to two volumes, with its title clianged to " La religion triomphante des attentats de I'impi6t6 ", and bear- ing the name of its author. The book was written to refute Sylvicn Mar(5chal's " Dictionnaire des Ath6es" then lately published, and was so timely, fair, and to the point that it received a cordial wel- come. Mar(5chal himself acknowledged his adver- sary's moileration. Cardinal Gerdil expres.sed his high appreciation of the work, and Portalis, to whom Alea had deilicated the second edition, was delighted with the book, and sub.sequently tried to get the au- thor to enter the Council of State but without success. Alea's only other work is " Ilefle.xions contre le divorce ", which also appeared in 1802. Beucnet in Diet, dc thcol. cath. 8. v. J. C. Da^-ey. Aleatory Contracts. See Contracts; Gamdlino. Alegambe, Philippe, a Jesuit historiographer, b. in Brus.sels, 22 January. 1592; d. in Rome, (i Scp*- tembcr, 1052. After finishing his studies he went to Spain, in the service of the Duke of Osuna, whom he accompanied to Sicily. There he entered the Society of Jesus at Palermo, on 7 September, 1013, studied at Rome, taught philosophy and theology at Gratz, Austria, and for several years travelled through the various countries of Eurojxj as preceptor of the Prince of Eggenberg. His last days were spent in Rome, where he became superior of the house of the Jesuits, and secretarj' to the General of the Society. He is chiefly known for his "Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu", published in 1642. It was a con- tinuation and enlargement of Father Ribadeneira's Catalogue, which had been brought up to 1008. He wrote also " Heroes et victima; caritatis Societatis Jesu" and "De Vitd et Moribus P. Joannis Cardim Lusitani, e Societate Jesu ", and " Aeta Sanctse Justx virg. et mart., ex variis M.SS". NictRON, XXXIX: Paquot; Bayle, I. 430-34; Aguilera, Hist. Prov. SiciUa, II, 591-94; De Backer, Bibliothinuc de la c. de J., I, 63. T. J. Campbell. Alegre, Francisco X.^^ER, historian, b. at Vera Cruz, in Mexico, or New Spain, 12 November, 1729; d. at Bologna, 16 August, 1788. He entered the So- ciety of Jesus in 1747, and soon acquired a reputation of unusual learning in everything related to the classics. He occupied a chair at the Jesuit college of Ilabana, and alter%vards at M^rida, in Yucatan; recalled to Europe in 1767, he settled at Bologna, where he died of apoplexy. He left quite a num- ber of shorter works, mostly translations of classics. Among them are the " Alexandriadas" (1773, Italy), the "Iliad" in Latin (Rome, 1788), "Homeri Batrachiomachia" in Latin (Mexico, 1789), togethei with fragments from Horace and a good transla- tion into Spanish of the first three cantos of the ".■rt podtique" of Boileau. But the work for which he is especially noted is his "History of the Society of Jesus in New Spain" (ed. Bustamente, Mexico, 1841). Although composed at a time when the Order was persecuted in the .Spanish colonies, and often with preat rigour, the tone of this most valuable work, indispensable for the study of the colonial histon,- of Mexico and of many of its Indian tribes, is dignified and free from attacks upon Spain and the Spaniards