Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/368

This page needs to be proofread.

ALMERIA 328 ALMS corded as TTought at that time form a chapter in the colony's history. De 'asconcf.i.i.os, Life of John Almeida; Records of the English Province S. J.; Foley, Gen^rral etatiMics, I, 499, II 1321, the latter, a translation from Moore's Hiatory of the Eneliih Province, S. J. , r ^ 1. J. Campbell. Almeria, The Diocese of, a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Granada in Spain. It i.s said to have been founded by Indaletius, a disciple of St. James the Greater, at I'rci (Vergium)., its episcopal honour was restored to this little sea- port by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1489, on the occa- sion of tlie conquest of Granada. In the meantime it had acquired the .rabic name of Almeria (mirror). In 1900 its i5opulation, all Catholic, was 230,000. There were 111) parish-priests, 32 vicars, 28 canons and prebendaries, 122 churches, 50 chapels, 3 Domini- can convents, and 4 houses of female religious. BATT.4NDIER, .Inn. pont. cath. (Paris, 1905), 211; Guia del Estado tcl. de Esparla para el aiio de 1905; Florez, Espafia Sagrada, cont. by Rl-sco (Madrid, 1754-1850). Almici, C.^MiLLO, a priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, b. 2 November, 1714; d. 30 December, 1779. He became a member of the Congregation of the Oratory at a very early .age and de'oted himself to the study of theology, Greek, and Hebrew, the Holy Scripture-s, chronology, sacred and profane history, antiquities, criticism, diplomacy, and liturgy, and was held in much esteem for his great and wide learning. .Amongst his contemporaries he was re- garded as an oracle upon many subjects, and is looked upon as one of the most celebrated theologians of his order. Of the many works he wrote, the prin- cipal are: — " Riflessioni su di un libro d G. Febronio " (Lucca, 1766); " Critica contro le opere del pericoloso Voltaire" (Brescia, 1770); " Dissertazione sopra i Martin della Chiesa cattolica" (Brescia, 1765) 2 vols.; " Meditations sur la vie et les Merits du P. Sarpi " (1765). The last named is a critical examination of Sarpi's unreliable history of the Council of Trent. HuRTEB, Nomendntor (Innsbruck, 1895), HI, 197; GlN- GUENi:, Hist. litt. de Vltalie. Almond, John, Cistercian, Confessor of the Faith; d. in Hull Ca,stle, IS April, 1585. His name has been included in the supplementary process of the Eng- lish Martyrs, and his case is of special interest as an example of the sufferings endured in the Elizabethan prisons. He came from Cheshire, and had been a monk in the time of Henry VIII; but the name of his abbey has not been identified, nor his fate de- termined during and after its suppression. The long-drawn sufferings, however, amid which he closed his days are set forth in a relation printed by Foley. From this we see that the courageous, patient old priest, after many sufferings in prison, was left in extreme age to pine away under a neglect that was revolting. Foley, Records S. J., Ill, 247; Morris, Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, III, 321. J. H. Pollen. Almond, John, Venerable, English priest and martyr, b. about 1577; d. at Tyburn, 5 December, 1612. He passed his childhood at Allcrton near Liver- pool, where he was born, and at Much-Woolton. His lioyhood and early manhood were spent in Ireland, until he went to the English College, Rome, at the age of twenty. He concluded his term there bril- liantly by giving the "Grand Act"— a public defence of theses which cover the whole course of philosophy and theology— and was warmly congratulated by Cardinals Haronius and Tarugi, who presided. The account of his death describes liim as "a reprover of sin, a good example to follow, of an ingenious and acute un(l(^rstanding, sharp and apprehensive in his conceits and answers, yet complete with modesty, full of courage and ready to suffer for (^'hrist, that suffered for liim." He was arrested in the year 1608, and again in 1612. In November of this year seven priests escaped from prison, and this may have sharpened the zeal of the persecutors. Dr. King, Protestant Bishop of London, being especially irri- tated against Almond'. He displayed to the last great acuteness in argument, and died with the Holy Name upon his lips. Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests; Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs (London, 1891), 170-194; Foley, Records S.J., V, viii. Patrick Ryan. Almond, Oliver, priest and writer, b. in the dio- cese of Oxford. He is believed by Foley to have been the brother of the martyr, the Ven. John Almond (q. v.); but Gillow has shown that this is probably a mistake. Oliver was educated at the English Colleges at Rome (1582-87) and Valla- dolid, and was a missionary in England. He pre- Bented the English College at Rome with a precious chalice. Some of his correspondence is preserved in the "Westminster Archives", and he is conjectured by Gillow to have been the writer of a work entitled, "The Ilncasing of Heresies, or the Anatomic of Prot- estancie, written and composed by O. A." (Louvain?) 1623, 8vo. Foley, Records S. J., VI., 153; Gillow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., 1, 27. Stonyhurst Mss. Collectanea, N. ii, 73. J. H. Pollen. Almonry. See Aumbry. Alms and Almsgiving (Gr. (Xerifuxrivri, "pity," "mercy"), any material favour done to assist the needy, and prompted by charity, is almsgiing. It is evident, then, that almsgiving implies much more than the transmission of some temporal commodity to the indigent. According to the creed of political economy, every material deed wrought by man to benefit his needy brother is almsgiving. According to the creed of Christianity, almsgiving implies a. material service rendered to the poor for Christ's sake. Materially, there is scarcely any difference between these two views; formally, they are essen- tially different. This is why the inspired WTiter says: "Blessed is he that considereth the needy and the poor" (Ps. xl, 2) — not he that giveth to the needy and the poor. The obligation of almsgiving is complementary to the right of property "which is not only lawful, but absolutely necessary" (Encycl., Rerum Novarum, tr. Baltimore, 1S91, 14). Owner- ship admitted, rich and poor must be found in society. Property enal)les its possessors to meet their needs. Though labour enables the poor to win their daily bread, accidents, illness, old age, labour difficulties, plagues, war, etc. frequently interrupt their labours and impoverish them. The responsi- bility of succouring those thus rendered needy belongs to those who have plenty (St. Thomas, Summa Theol., II-II, Q. xxxii, art. "5, ad 2'""). For "it is one thing to have a right to po.sscss money, and another to hae a right to use monej' as one pleases." How must one's possessions be used? ■The Church replies: Man sliould not consider his external possessions as his own, but as common to all, so as to share them without difficulty when others are in need. Whence the Apostle says: Command the rich of this world to give with ease. This is a duty not of justice (except in e.xtremo cases), but of Christian cliarity — a duty not enforced by human law. But the laws and judgments of men must yield to the laws and judgments of Christ the true God, who in many ways urges on His followers the practice of almsgiving (Encyclical, Rerum Novanim, 14, 15; cf. De Lugo, De Jure et JustitiA, Disp. xvi, § 154). Scripture is rich in passages which directly or indirectly emphasize the necessity of contributing towards the welfare of the needy. 'J'he history of the Church in Apostolic times shows that the early Christians fully realized the importance of this ob