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ALTAR 350 ALTAR bread, but the Greeks retained the use of leavened bread. Leavened bread may be used in the Latin Church if after consecration the celebrant adverts to the fact that the host before him has some sub- stantial defect, and no other than leavened bread can be procured at the time (Lehmkuhl, n. 121, 3). A Latin priest travelling in the East, in places in which there are no churches of his rite, may celebrate with leavened bread. A Greek priest travelling in the West may, under similar circumstances, cele- brate with unleavened bread. For the purpose of giving Viaticum, if no unleavened bread be at hand, some say that leavened may he used (C. Uttini, Corso di Scienza Lit., bk. II, p. 174, footnote); but St. Liguori, (bk. VI, n. 203, dub. 2) says that the more probable opinion of theologians is that it cannot be done. (2) The hosts must be recently made (Rit. RoBi., tit. iv,cap. i, n. 7). The rubrics do not specify the term reccnlex in speaking of the hosts. In Rome, the bakers of altar-breads are obliged to make solemn affidavit that they will not sell breads older than fif- teen days, and St. Charles, by a statute of the Fourth SjTiod of Milan, prescribed that hosts older than twenty days must not be used in the celebration of Mass. In practice, therefore, those older than three weeks ought not to be used. (3) Round in form, and not broken. (4) Clean and fair, of a thin layer, and of a size conformable to the regular custom in the Latin Church. In Rome the large hosts are about three and one-fifth inches in diameter; in other places they are smaller, but should be at least two and three-fourths inches in diameter. The small hosts for the Communion of the laity should be about one and two-fifths inches in diameter (Schober, S. Al- phonsi Liber de Cceremoniis Missce, p. 6, footnote 9). When a large host can not be obtained Mass may be said in private with a small host. In cases of neces- sity, such as permitting the people to fulfil the pre- cept of hearing Mass, or administering Viaticum, the Mass may be also said with a small host, but, as liturgists say, to avoid scandal the faithful should be advised (De Herdt, II, n. 137). As a rule the image of Christ crucified should be impressed on the large host (Cong. Sac. Rit., 26 April, 1834), but the mon- ogram of the Holy Name (Ephem. Lit., XIII, 1899, p. 686), or the Sacred Heart (ibid., p. 266) may also be adopted. The altar-breads assumed different names according as they had reference to the Eucharist as a sacrament or as a sacrifice: bread, gift (donum), table (mensa) allude to the Sacrament, which was instituted for the nourishment of our soul; oblation, victim, host, allude to sacrifice. Before the tenth century the word "host " was not employed, proba- bly because before that time the Blessed Eucharist was considered more frequently as a sacrament than as a sacrifice, hence the Fathers use such expressions as communion {si/naxis), supper (cima), breaking of bread, etc., but at present the word " host " is used when referring to the Eucharist either as a sacra- ment or as a sacrifice. In the liturgy it is used (1) for the bread before its consecration, "Suscipe sancte Pater . . . banc immaculatam hostiam" (Gffertory of the Mass); (2) for Christ under the ap- pearance of the Eucharistic Species, "Unde et me- mores . . . hostiam purani, hostiam sanctam, hos- tiam immaculatam" (Mass, after the consecration). IJurandus says that the word host is of pagan origin, derived from the word hostio, to strike, referring to the victim offered to the gods after a victory; but it is al.so of biblical origin, as it represented the mat- ter, or victim, of the sacrifice, e. g. "expiationis hos- tiam" (Exod., xxix, 36). Ai.taei-Canolehticks.— An altar-candlestick con- sists of five narts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drinpings of wax, and the pricket, i. e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed (Pugin, Glossary). Instead of fixing the candle on the pricket, it is permissible to use a tube in which is put a small candle which is forced to the top of the tube by a spring placed within (Cong. Sac. Rit., 11 May, 1878). In the early days of the Church candlesticl<s were not placed on the altar, though lights were used in the church, and especially near the altar. The chandeliers were either sus- pended from the ceiling or attached to the side walls, or were placed on pedestals. When the chan- deliers were fed with oil they were usually called canthari, when they held candles they went by the name of phari, although frequently these words were applied indiscriminately to either. The lights usually assumed the form of a crown, a cross, a tree, etc., but at times also of real or imaginary ani- mals. We have no documentary evidence that can- dlesticlcs were placed on the altar during the cele- bration of the Holy Sacrifice before the tenth century. Leo IV (847-855) declared that only the relics of saints and the book of the Gospels might be placed on the altar (Hamel, De cura pastorum). No writer before the tenth century who treats of the altar makes mention of candlesticks on the altar, but mention is made of acolytes carrying candlesticks, which, however, were placed on the floor of the sanc- tuary or near the corners of the altar, as is still the custom in the Eastern Church. Probably in the twelfth century, and certainly in the thirteenth, lights were placed on the altar; for Durandus (Ra- tionale, I, iii, 27) says "that at both corners of the altar a candlestick is placed to signify the joy of two peoples who rejoiced at the birth of Christ", and "the cross is placed on the altar between two candlesticks." The custom of placing candlesticks and candles on the altar became general in the six- teenth century. Down to that time only two were ordinarily used, but on solemn feasts four or six. At present more are used, but the rubric of the mis- sal (20) prescribes only two, one at each side of the cross, at least at a low Mass. These candlesticks and their candles must be placed on the altar; their place cannot be taken by two brackets attached to the superstructural steps of the altar, or affixed to the wall (Cong. Sac. Rit., 16 September, 1865). Ac- cording to the "CiBremoniale Episcoporum" (I, xii, 11), there should be on the high altar six candle- sticks and candles of various sizes, the highest of which should be near the cross. If all six be of the same size they may be placed on different elevations, so as to produce the same effect; a custom, however, has been introduced of having them at the same height, and this is now permissible (Cong. Sac. Rit., 21 July, 18.55). On the other altars of the church there should be at least two candlesticks, but usu- ally four are used; on the altar of the Blessed Sac- rament, if the Blessed Sacrament is not kept on the high altar, there should regularly be six. The Ro- man Missal (Rubr. 20) says also that a third candle- stick and candle should be placed at the epistle side, and that this extra candle should be lighted at low Masses from the consecration to the consumption of the Precious Blood. This nibric is onlv directive (9 June, 1899). The third light is not "placed on the altar itself, but on the credence, or on the step of the altar at the place where the altar-lioy kneels. A bracket affixed to the wall may be used for this candlestick (Ephem. Lit., IX, 34, 1875). The can- dlesticks may te made of any kind of metal or even of wood, gilded or silvered; but on (lood Friday silvered ones may not be used (Cstrem. Episc., II, XXV, 2). The candlesticks destined for the ornamen- tation of the altar are not to be used around the bier at funerals, or around the catafalque at the commemoration of the dead (Hit. Rom., VI, i, 6), during Mass or other functions, at least on solemn feasts, they cannot be covered with a cloth or veil