Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/505

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449

ANALOGY 449 ANALOGY church in Anagni claims an Apostolic ori^n. Anagni as a bishopric appears in history in the hfth century. Felix its bishop v!is present at the Lateran Synod held in 487 (Mansi. VII, 1171), and Tortunatu-s was amongst those who signed the Acts of the Synod of 499 (Mommsen, M. (.). H. Auct., Ant., Xll, 400). In later centuries the Bishopric of . agni attained great iin[K)rtancc because its occupants received special consideration from the popes. Zachary of Anagni was the legate of Nicholas I at the Synod held in Constantinople in 851 to decide as to the validity of the election of Photius to the patriarchate. In 891) Stephen of Anagni became Pope. Anagni gave four poiws to tlie Church, all related to one another: Innocent III (1198-1210); (Iregory IX (1227-41); Alexander IV (1254-01); Uoniface VIII (1294-130:?). St. Thomas Hecket in his flight was received at Anagni by the canons, and a chapel erected to him in the ba,sement of the cathedral at the request of Henry II of England, is now used as a place of sepulture for the canons. Boniface VIII was violently attacked at Anagni by Ciuillaume Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna, emis-saries of Philippe le Bel. Various privileges hae been conferred on the diocese and the canons by different popes. The cathedral has several rich ecclesiastical reli<'s, such as chests and vestments. There are 31,200 Catho- lics, 26 parishes, 59 secular priests, 52 regulars, 45 seminarists, .'iO churches or chapels. An'agni, Council of (1160). At this council, surrounded by his cardinals and bishops, Alexan- der III solemnly excommunicated the Emperor Frederick (Barbaros.sa), the Pfalzgraf Otto, and their followers, and renewed the excommunication of the Antipope Octavian (Victor III). The Emperor's subjects were declared absolved from their oath of allegiance. l'i:iiKi.i.i, Ilnlui Sarrn (Venice. 1722>. I. 30.'); Gams, 5<ti>» Eputcoporum Ecct. cathol. (Itatisl)on. 1873), 6t>3: CAi-lT.i.i.KTn, Le chitse d'ltalia (Venice. 1866), VI. 171; Lxbrr Pontif. (eti. Duchesne), II, 403; Heff.le, Concilimofarh. V, 93. John J. a' Becket. Analogy, a philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; .secondly, a process of rea- soning. We have here to consider its meaning and use: I. In Physic.l .*.nd Natuh.vl Sciences; II. In Metaphysics .vnd Schol.vstic Philosoi'hy; III. In Theodicy; IV. In Relation to the Mysteries of Faith. I. .-Vnalogy in Physic.1L and Natural Sciences. — .s a property, analogy means a certain similarity mixed with diflference. This similarity may be founded entirely or chiefly upon a conception of the mind; in this sense we say that there is amdogy be- tween the light of the sun and the light of the mind, between a lion and a courageous man, between an organism and society. This kind of analogy is the source of metaphor. The .similarity may be founded on the real existence of .similar properties in objects of different species, genera, or classes; tho.sc organs, for instance, are analogous, which, belonging to beings of different species or genera, and differing in structure, fulfil the .same phy.siological functions or h;ive the same connections. .s a process of reason- ing, analogy consists in conchuiing from some analogical properties or similarity under certain a.s- pccts to other analogical properties or similarity under other .aspects. It was by such a process that Franklin passed from the analogv' between the effects of lightning and the effects of electricity to the identity of their cause; Cuvier. from the analogy be- tween certain organs of fossils and tlie.se organs in ac- tual species to the analogy of the whole organism; that we infer from the analogy between the organs and external actions of animals and ourown, the exist- ence of consciousness in tliem. .■ alogical rea.soning is a combination of inductive and deductive reason- ing ba.sed on the principle that "analogical properties con.sidered as similar involve similar consequences ". It is evident that analogical rea.soning, as to its value, depends on the value of the analogical property on which it rests. Ba.sed on a mere conception of the mind, it may suggest, but it docs not prove; it cannot give conclusions, but only comparisons. Based on real properties, it is more or less conclusive according to the numl>ur ami significance of the similar prop- erties and according to the fewne.ss and insigiuficarico of the dissimilar [)roperties. From a strictly logical point of view, analogical reasoning can furnish only probable conclusions and hypotheses. Sudi is the ca.se for most of the theories in physical and natural sciences, which remain hypothetical so long as they are merely the result of analogy and have not been verified directly or indirectly. II. . alogy i.v Metaphysics and Schola.stic Philosophy. Analogy in metaphysics and Scholas- tic philosophy was carefully studied by the School- men, especially by the P.seudo-Dionysius, Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas. It also may be considered either as a property or as a process of reasoning. .s a metaphysical property, analogy is not a mere like- ness between diverse objects, out a proportion or relation of object to object. It is, therefore, neither a merely equivocal or verbal coincidence, nor a fully univocal participation in a common concept; but it partakes of the one and the other. (Cf. St. Thomas, Sumnia Theol., I, (J. xiii, a. 5, 10; also, Q. vii, De potentiii, a. 7.) We may di.stinguish two kinds of analogy: (1) Two objects can be said to be analogous on account of a relation which they have not to each other, but to a third object: e. g., there is analogy between a remedy and the appearance of a person, in virtue of whicli the.sc two objects are said to be healthy. This is ba.sed upon the relation which each of them has to the person's health, the former as .a cause, and the latter as a sign. Tliis may be calleil indirect analogy. (2) Two objects again are analo- gous on account of a relation which they have not to a third object, but to each other. Remedy, nourish- ment, and external appearance are termed healthy on account of the direct relation they bear to the health of the person. Here health is the ba.sis of the analogy, and is an example of what the Schoolmen call summum analogatum. (Cf. St. Thomas, ib.) This second sort of analogy is twofold. Two things are related by a direct proportion of degree, distance, or measure: e. g., is in direct proportion to 3, of which it is the double; or the healthiness of a remedy is tlirectly related to, and directly measured by, the health which it produces. This analogy is called analogy of proportion. Or, the two objects are re- lated one to th.e other not by a direct proportion, but hy means of another and intermediarj' rehition: for instance, 6 and 4 are analogous in this sense that 6 is the double of 3 as 4 is of 2, or 6 : 4 :: 3 : 2. The analogy between corporal and intellectual vision is of this sort, because intelligence is to the mind what the eye is to the body. This kind of analogy is b:ised on the proportion of proportion; it is called analogy of proportionality. (Cf. St. Thomas, Q. ii, De verit., a. 11; Q. xxiii, De verit.. a. 7, ad 9^). III. . alooy as a Method in "Theodicy. — .s human knowledge proceeds from the data of the senses directed and interpreted by reason, it is evi- dent that man cannot arrive at a perfect knowle<lge of the nature of God which is essentially spiritual and infinite. Vet the various elements of perfection, dependence, limitation, etc., which exist in all finite beings, while they enable us to prove the existence of God. furnish us also with a certain knowleilge of His nature. For dependent beings must ultimately rest on something non-dependent, relative beings on that which is non-relative, and, even if this non-dependent and non-relalive Being cannot be conceived directly