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461

ANAXAGORAS 461 A1«0HIETA at Columbia College, New York, in 1768; at Harvard in 1783; Dartinoutli, I7B7; I'niversity of Maryland, 1807; Yale, IHIO; Brown, 1811; Transylvania Uni- versity, Lexington, Ky., 1817. Until the last quarter of the nineteenth centurj' verj' little more than the training of medical students for their work as general practitioners was accomplished in the anatomical departments of American medical schools. Certain names, as those of the elder Warren, Isaac Wistar, William IIiinuT, deserve to be nientionetl. Tlic important names in the development of anat- omy in America are concerned more with compara- tive than with human anatomy. Cope and .Iarsh, Agassiz ami Leidy, made names for themselves that were known all over the world. Ilarri.son .llen, Thomas Dwight, and Charles Minot, with J. A. Ryder n'pn'sent in their various departments discoveries of no little importance. In brain anatomy there has iH'cn some exrcllont work from Burt Wilder, E. A. Spitzka, Llcwellys Barker, and W. C. Spiller. In general, however, the period of successful investiga- tion into anatomical proljlems seems to be only just opening up. Definite arrangements for the carrjnng on of original research are now generally recognized as necessary appendages of university anatomical departments and much can be expected in the very near future. (See Bo.nif.vce VIII.) DcPONY. Medicine in the Middle Aget (Cinn.. 1889); PuscH- MAN.N*. ilintory of Mediad Education (Ix>ndon, 1891); Corradi, Anatomia m Italia nrt medio no (I'aiiuu, 1873): Medici Sruola anatomtca dt Bologna (1857); Foster. History of Fhyaiology (CainbridKe, 1901 1; Wal-sh, The Popes in the History of Medicine, in the Messenger, Uclober, 1903; Keen, Sketch of the Early History of Practical Anatomy (Phila., 1874); and The Phitailelphia School of Anatomy (Phila.. 1875); HARnKKN. Anatomi/ in America (Bulletin of the tJniversity of Wisconsin, 1905, Mndi.«on, Vi.«.). See also standard Histories of ^Ie<licine by Sprengel. De Kenzi, Darenbero, Ha88, H.esER, Pagel. and Pushuan. Thomas D. Merrigan. Anazagoras. See Ioni.^n School. Anaximander. See Ionian School. Anazarbus, a titular metropolitan see of Cilicia (Lesser .rmenia), sufTragan of Antioch, known also to the ancients as Nova Troas, to the crusaders as Naversa, and to the Arabs as Ain-Zarba. Councils were held there in 431 and 435. Smith, Diet, of Greek ami Roman Geogr., I, 139: I.eqdik.v, Oriens Christ. (1740), III, tai-032. Afiazco, Pedro de, b. at Chachapoyas (Peru) in 1.5.')0; il. at .Asuncion, Paraguay, 1605. His father was Pedro do Afiazco, a Spanish captain, companion of Belalcazar in the conquest of Ecuador; ana through him, it is said, the first notice of the "Dorado" of Ciuatavitd reached the Spaniards in Ecuador. At the age of twenty-two Ailazco became a Jesuit. In 1577 he was sent to Juli, on Lake Titicaca. Thence he p!i.s,setl to the Chaco tribe among the Abipones and, in 1,')!)3, to Paraguay, where he died. He was an indefatigable missionary and a zoaloas student of Indian languages. Highly respectable authorities, like Gonzalez l):ivila and Ix)zano, credit him with having comjio.setl grammars, "doctrines", and cate- chisms in nine dilTerent Indian languages of South America. Davii.a, Teatro eclrntistico de la primiiiva Iglesia de las fmJins oecidentales (Madrid, 1049); TxjZANO, Descripcitin del gran Chaeo (Cordova, 1733); Menoircri*-, Diccionario: ToRRr-s Saii.amani.o, Antiguos Jrsuil'is (I.iina, 1882); Relnciones grogroliras de Indias (Madrid, 1S97, Apnemlix), IV. None of .•Xnazco's linguistic works have been published, and it is to bo feared tlrnt must, if not all, of his niatiuscripls arc lost. Ad. F. Bandelieu. Ancarano, Jacobtjs. See Jacobus de Tehamo. Anchieta, Joseph, a famous Jesuit missionary, commnnly known as the Apostle of Brazil, b. on the Islaiul of Tenerife, in 1.5,33, of noble family; d. in Brazil, 1.597. .fter studying at Coimbrn, he entered the Society of Jesus, at the age of seventeen, and when a novice nearly ruined his health by liis excessive austerity, causing an injury to the spine which made him almost a hunchback. He was sent to the New World, with no idea of making him a mi.ssionary, but in the hope of restoring his shattered health. lie roachc<l Brazil in 1553, and laboured there among the colonists and savage natives for forty-four years. His first work was teaching Latin to some of the junior members of the Society and to a certain numlx^r of externa. Very likely it was the first classical school in America. He was a perfect master of Latin, Castilian, and Portuguese, and quickly acquired a knowledge of the native tongue, in which he composed a grammar and dictionary as well as two books of religious iiLst ruction, to assist the missionaries in the work of converting the natives. He was a poet, and wrote canticles whicli immediately became very popular among the natives and Portu- guese. To eflect a reformation of morals, he com- posed and directed a drama which was acted in the o|X!n air at Bahia. IJy means of interludes in Brazilian the Indians were able to grasp its mean- ing. This also was possibly tlie first attempt at dramatic art in the New World. Though not a priest, he accompanied the missionaries on their apostolic journeys, and on one occasion remained a willing hostage among the wild Tamuins who were waging a fierce war against the settlers; twice he w;is on the ix)int of being killed and eaten. During his captivity he Ls said to have composed a poem of nearly five thou.sand verses, and, as there were no means of putting it on paper, he committed it to memory, and wrote it out after he returned to the colony. It was during the last military operations to suppress the Tamuin uprising that he was recalled from the expedition, and ordained a priest by Peter Ix-itano, the first bishop who arrived in Brazil. Apart from his supernatural gifts, he was remarkable for his captivating ck- quence and gracefulness of speech. He had a fair knowledge of medicine, wliidi he made use of in helping his Indians, and he displayed an unusual skill in the details of business when, later in life, he was called to the oflfice of rector and provincial. But it is chiefly as a thaumaturgus, as a daring missionary, and as a man of extraordinary holiness, that Anchieta is remembered. It is narrated of him that the birds of the air came at his call; the wild beasts of the forest submitted to his caresses; the waters of the sea formed a wall about him while he was praying; the touch of his garments restored health to the sick. He posses.sed the gift of prophecy, and frequently described events that were occurring at great distances. Though coastantly suffering from bodily infirmities, he undertook the most la- borious missions, and thus at times seemed to have a supernatural power to do without sleep or rest. The districts which he evangelized were always the most exhausting and dangerous. His power over men, botli savage and civilized, was irresistible. His prayer was constant, and he was seen fre<iucntly, though unaware of it himself, surrounded by a d:izzling light. He was almost absolutely without any earthly possessions, and went barefoot on his apostolic expeditions. I'jven before he was a priest he was entnisted with the investigation of houses of the Society; and when he could be spared from his missions, tie w.as made rector of the College of St. Vincent, and, sul)sc(|ucnlly. Provincial of Brazil, rclinquisliing this |)Ost only when his failing strength made it impassible for him to fulfil its duties. '1 he IH'oplc <l:imoured for his canonization, and he was declared 'enerable by the Church. The process of his beatification is now being considered. Compendia de Ui vfe/o de el aptistol de el Brazil, V, P. J. de Anchieta (Xercs de la Fr., 1677), translated by Balthazar