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ANCYRA 465 ANDERDON eral times copied and edited since the sixteenth cen- tury. The ruins of Ancyra furnish to-day vahiable bas-rehefs, inscriptions, and other architectural frag- ments. Its episcopal list is given in (ianis, "Series episc. ICccl. oath."; also that of anotlier Ancyra in I'hrj'gia Pacatiana. Smith. Diet, of Greek and Roman Geogr., I, 1.3.3; Lequikn, Orirnt Chritl. (1740). 1. 455-474; Babklev, ^1 Ride Ihroutih Atui Mxnor and Armenia (London, 1891), 103. Ancyra, CouNcii,'* of. — Three councils were held ill tlio I'orincr capital of Galatia (now Angora) in Asia .Minor, tluring the fourth century. The first, an orthodox ploiiarj' .<ynod, was held in 314, and its twenty-five disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance. Nine of tliem deal with conditions for the reconciha- tionof the/',- the others, with marriage, alienations of church projicrty, etc. The synod of 358 was a Semi-.rian conciliahulum, presiiled over by Hasil of Ancyra. It condemned the grosser Arian blas- phemies, but set forth an equally heretical doctrine in the propo.sition that the Son was in all things similar to the Father, but not identical in substance. In 375, Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops, among them St. Gregory of Njissa. Mansi, Coll. Cone. {1739). II. 513; II, 2G5: Hkfklk, Con- cilimoeich., I, 219-242; BackHAM, Telts of the Canonf of An- cyra. in Sliuiia Bibl. Eccl. (18911, III. 139— 21G. Cf. BeI/- i.EV (on . cyra) in Mem. de I'Acad. det Inter. (1774), XXXVII, 381-418. Thomas J. Sn.ui.oj. Andalusia. — This appellative is derived from Al-.Andaliis, the name given by the Arabs to the portion of Spain subject to their dominion. Accord- ing to the opinion of D. Eduardo Saavedra, the name was applied after the battle of Las Naves in 1212 (when the Sierra Morena became the dividing line between the Christian and the Moorish pos.sessions) to the territory under the control of the Moors, the limits of which were approximately the same as those of the present Andalusia. This country is situated in the southern part of the Iberian peninsula, and is bounded on the north by the provinces of Hadajoz and New Castile, on the south by the Medi- terranean Sen and the Atlantic Ocean, on the by the provinces of Albacete and Murcia, and on the west by Portugal. Its total area is about 33,950 square miles, and the number of its inhabitants, according to the latest census (verified in 1900), 3,433,693. The principal mountain ranges that traverse this section are Sierra Moreiia in the north. Sierra Nevada in the south, and Sierra Almagrera and Sierra de Oador to the east. The largest rivers are the Ciuadalquivir, the Guadalete, Rio Tinto, the Guadalmedina, and the Genii, a tributary of the Guadalquivir. The climate in general is temperate, the .section bordering directly on the sea being hot. The soil is very fertile in almost all the level countrj-, especially in the flat arable land around Cordova and Seville, and in the wide open plain of Granada; it is poor in other sections, Ijecause of the scarcity of water — as in certain parts of the province of Cadiz — or l) of innate properties of the soil —;»s in Alpu- jarras. The most important products are cereals, olives, beet-root, and sugar-cane in the low lands; grapes, figs, oranges, and pomegranates in the i'o<7a.s (irrigated lands). The oils of Cordova and Seville, and the wines of Jerez and Malaga are famous; also the raisins of Malaga. Much attention is given in Cordova and Seville to the breeding of fine horses, and these provinces are also famous for their breed of bulls. At the present time there are in Andalusia two archbishoprics: Seville and Granada; and five bish- oprics: Cadiz, Cordova, Jaen. Malaga, Almeria, and Guadix. The military department is represented by a capitania general, with headcjuarters at Seville and eight stations, one in each province. The judiciary is divided into two districts (aiidienciax territoriales), that of Seville and that of Granada; the political and administrative department is divided into eight provinces, each named from its cai)ital: Seville, Cadiz, Huelva, Cordova, Jaen, Malaga, Granada, and Almeria. The Andalusians speak a dialect of the Spanish langu:ige, the chief diiference being the pronunciation of the letter h, giving s the sound of z, and c the sound of s (in the syllables re, ci), and the suppression of the final .s. Many strangers visit Andalusia everj' year, especially in the spring, at- tracted by the beauty of its many liistoric monu- ments — pre-eminently, the cathedral and Alcazar of Seville, the cathedral of Cordova, and the Alhambra — and also by the typically national character of the Holy Week services at Seville, and of Corpus Christi at Granada. Fairs of great local interest are held in both cities in the week following these services. Andalusia was inhabited in early historic times by a people of Iberian origin; the '1 urdetani occupied what are now the provinces of Seville and Muelva; the Tiirduli, Jaen, Cordova, and part of Granada; the Hilstuli, Malaga, and the coast of Granada; and the Hastetani, Jaen, Guadix, Baza, and Almeria. To this region, called Tarshish in the Bible and Tartessos by Greek writers, the Phccniciaius came, about the year 1100 b. c, settling in what is now Cadiz, and later spreading to Malaga, Adra, and Jete, all three celebrated for their deposits of salt. The Cartliaginians succeeded the Plioenicians in power, and ruled over almost the whole of Andalusia until their expulsion by the Romans. Under the Roman dominion Andalusia formed a part of Farther Spain (Hi.ipania Ulterior) during the Republic, and an independent province, called Boetica, in the time of the Empire. With the Germanic invasion came the Vandals, who established themselves here, to >e followed by the Visigoths when the Vandals passed over into Africa. When Athanagild called the Byzan- tines to his aid, he gave them as a compensation the most southerly portion of Andalusia, but Leovigild, Suintila, and Sisebiit succeeded in reuniting it to the monarchy of the Visigoths. Under the rule of the Emirs, subordinates of the Caliph of Damascus, and in the time of the Caliphate of Cordova, Andalusia was the centre of the political life and literary and artistic culture of the Arab people. At the downfall of the Caliphate (1030), it was subdivided into eleven independent states, some extremely small: Cordova, Seville, Carmona, Maron, Arcos, Niebla, Huelva, Malaga, Ronda, Granada, and Almeria. The Al- moravides (1086-1129) and the Almohades (1129- 1272) subjugated all this territory to their dominion. ^'erdinand III, the Saint, King of Castile and Leon, in the middle of the thirteenth century, reconquered Jaen, Cordova, and Seville, leaving to the Arabs only the kingdom of Granada, which compri.sed the greater part' of the present provinces of Malaga, tiranada, and Almeria. Finally, after a war whic-li lasted nine years. Ferdinand and Lsabclla, the Catholic, ob- tained possession of Granada, entering the capital city in triumph, 2 January, 1492. Andalusia has produced many illustrious men in science, art, letters, and the profession of arms. It will be sufficient to mention the philosopher Francisco Suarez, the ascetic writer Fray Luis de Granada, the painter Murillo, and El Gran Capitan, Gonsalvo de Cordova. .Sanchez y Casado, Elementoa de peografla eomparada (Ma.lri.l. 1894); Kiepert. I.rhrbueh der alien Geographir (Berlin. 1RS9); Gcerra k Hinojosa. Hitloria de la dominacion de lot puehloa (jermtinieot en Etpaia (Ma«tri<l. 1890^; SiMONfrr. Deteripeinn del rrino de Granada bajo la dominaciiin de lot Xatentat (Madrid, 18G1). For the .rab conquest 9ce Codera and ISaavedra. EouAnDo DE Hinojosa. Anderdon, William Henry, English Jesuit and writer, b. in London, England, 26 December, 1816;